100 Years Later -
Dawn, 100 years later, in a place which we now call home, the sun rose, just as it did in 1915.
Today all across Australia and the World, people commemorated the day that Australia and New Zealand became a Nation. The day when we remember the thousands who gave their life in firstly the islands of the South Pacific, then the hills and gullies of Gallipoli, and onto the battles on the Western Front in Europe and then the hot dry lands of Egypt.
An ABC of their heroics
No Mans Land
We joined 10,000 others in a brilliant autumn sunshine, and remembered them. There was even a 9th Re-inactment group really well done
A fantastic effort from a rather small town and it was a privilege to honour not only Monty but all those other brave Durnford cousins who have featured in these stories.
“They did their duty; now, let us do ours. They gave us an example; now, let us be worthy of it. They were as good as they could be in their time; now, let us be as good as we can be in ours.
“Like every generation since, we are here on Gallipoli because we believe the Anzacs represented Australians at their best.
“Because they rose to their challenges, we believe it is a little easier for us to rise to ours. Their example helps us to be better than we would otherwise be.”
Prince Charles brought tears to the eyes of some crowd members with his strong reading of a diary entry of Company Quartermaster Sergeant Benjamin Leane, of the 10th Battalion, written to his wife on the night of the landing.
“In case the worst happens and I am unable to make any more entries I will take this opportunity to bid you goodbye, dear girl,” Prince Charles read.
“I trust that I will come through all right, but it is impossible to say and I must do my duty whatever it is. But if I am to die, know that I died loving you with my whole heart and soul, dearest wife that a man ever had. Kiss little Gwen and our new baby, who perhaps I may never see, and never let them forget Daddy.”
Australia’s Defence Force Chief, Air Marshall Mark Binskin, was the first to address the crowd.
“One hundred years ago today, the quiet stillness of dawn and the gentle sound of the waves on this beach gave way to the flash and roar of gunfire over the painful cries of the wounded,” he said.
“For so many, the rising sun that day would be their last.”
In the hands of children and had collected materials from the land, there are bones of martyrs in front of them.
CSM G.S. Feist, wheat agent, Mount Kokeby WA wrote a letter in May 1915, unfortunately he was killed in September 1916.
"I was in the second tow and we got it, shrapnel and rifle fire bad. We lost three on the destroyer and four in the boat getting to land. The Turks were close on the beach when we got there. We had to fix bayonets and charge. We jumped into the water up to our waists and some of them their armpits ...we had to trust the penknife at the end of our rifles. When I got there it was not long, but..,I tell you, one does not forget these things... all we thought of was to get at them. One would hear someone say "They've got me" and you register another notch when you get to them".
Trooper I.L. Idriess, miner, Grafton NSW The Desert Column p 46 Diary September 1915.
........immediately I opened...(my tin of jam) the flies rushed..all fighting among themselves. I wrapped my overcoat over the tin and gouged out the flies, then spread the biscuit, then held my handover it and drew the biscuit out of the coat. But a lot of flies flew into my mouth and beat about inside...I nearly howled with rage...Of all the bastards of places this is the greatest bastard in the world"
Captain D.G.Campbell, grazier, Bombala, NSW Letter August 1915 (KIA October 1917) The worst things here (Turks excepted) are the flies in millions, lice ...& everlasting bully-beef and biscuit, & too little water. Also it will be good thing when we get a chance to bury some of the dead."
Private Tom Usher, 9th Battalion, AIF in an Interview 1984.
You're up to your neck in water, and a lot of them got drowned, too, with the weight of the packs and that - then scramble ashore and take shelter as quick as you could You're only looking after yourself, you couldn't worry about the other bloke, you had to get ashore as quick as you could - just keep the rifle above your head, keep it dry ....I could see these cliffs, and I ran for it. You didn't care who you were with as long as you got away from the fire. ...I remember one block he got hit in the mouth - he lost part of his tongue, I couldn't understand what he was talking about.
I didn't like the dirty conditions - you couldn't even clean the old flaming shirt, couldn't get a new issue and you'd have to go and wash it in the sea water. There was no fresh water to wash your clothes in - gee. It was filthy ..The fatigue work with water was an awful job, carrying two tins of water from the beach back up to the trenches....It was two hours off four hours on for that...
You can't imagine what it was like, the filthy conditions and especially using those latrines with all those paper blowing all over the shop. And flies! Look you'd open the tin and there'd be millions of them, Crikey filthy filthy conditions...
Private Frank Parker, 5th Battalion AIF Interview 1984
It was very steep terrain, steep gullies and it was very hard going. We didn't see many Turks at all. It was just a matter of going for your life. We all go mixed up. We were all over the place - there was the 5th Battalion mixed with the 6th Battalion, the 8th Battalion - all over the place. The higher up we got the worse it got! We had to pull ourselves up in the virgin country and here they were in trees and God knows what they had a sitting shot at us. Then we started to get heavy fire and the casualties were very very high, and after that we got orders to dig in..................."
Bill Gammage, The Broken Years and Hervey Broadbent, The Boys who came home
Gallipoli 2015: Soldier almost left behind during Anzac Cove retreat,
digger reveals in private recording of final days of war By John Taylor
Gallipoli 2015: Soldier almost left behind during Anzac Cove retreat,
digger reveals in private recording of final days of war By John Taylor
Photo: Before the war:
5th Light Horse Regiment, B squadron, C troop at Brisbane's Enoggera Barracks.
Dave Clark is third from the left in the back row. (Supplied: Beryl Holmes)
A fascinating interview with a
Gallipoli veteran has been made public, detailing how a soldier was nearly left
behind during the famous evacuation in December 1915.
In 1981, former Light Horse
Trooper Dave Clark sat down with his daughter Beryl Holmes and a tape recorder. Mrs Holmes has only now decided
to make the private interview public.
"I had an uncle who kept
saying to me, 'Have you ever talked to your father about the war?'" she
"When I interviewed him then
he just came out with it because I was fairly professional."
Media player: "Space"
to play, "M" to mute, "left" and "right" to seek.
In a wide-ranging discussion with
her father, they discussed his war experience in Egypt, the Middle East and
Mr Clark arrived on the Turkish
peninsula a month after the campaign began and stayed until the end.
"Did they have much trouble
keeping up morale?" Mrs Holmes asked during the interview.
"They didn't have any
trouble at all," he replied.
"That is the thing that
would be amazing to most people today - that when you think that there were the
hard conditions you had to put up with."
away and leaving mates behind'
Then 24 years old, Mr Clark was
among the very last men to leave Gallipoli during the historic evacuation.
His best friend Sam Smith was
killed and buried at Gallipoli.
Mr Clark said despite the enormous
danger, one supper before they left a friend admitted he found it hard to
"He says, 'There's one
bloody thing I don't like - this sneaking away and leaving our mates behind.'
Well, I've never forgotten those words," he said.
Mr Clark left his position to
board a boat in socks donated to him by a South Australian grandmother, but he
wore them on the outside of his boots.
"It was that big it would be
absolutely impossible to wear on your feet," he said, laughing.
"And it was warm and when
you walked along you didn't make any damn noise at all."
The veteran told a tale of how as
the final boats were preparing to leave an officer realised something was
"They were going round
counting. Going round counting, and I said, 'Wonder what the bloody hell's
wrong?', he said, "We're one ... one man missing."
An official history of the Fifth
Light Horse published in 1927 backs Mr Clark's recollection, and confirms that
a man named Trooper Murray had been left at his post.
"And there he was. He stood
on that damn trench, all on his own - none to the left, none to the
right," Mr Clark said.
"He was there on his own
probably for nearly 10 minutes."
Media player: "Space"
to play, "M" to mute, "left" and "right" to seek.
Lighthorseman Dave Clark talks about almost leaving a soldier behind in
Gallipoli evacuation in private recording (ABC News)
He was retrieved by two of his mates.
As they all safely sailed away,
Mr Clark told of when a time-delayed bomb exploded near the Turkish trenches.
"There was a scene that was
probably never happened before in warfare and can never, never happen again,
because ... when we let this blast over and they thought we was going to
attack," he said.
"There wasn't one man left
on Gallipoli, yet they were pounding all these trenches, all our trenches
everywhere with shells.
"They were machine guns
flashing, there was bombs going off, there was big flares going up in the sky
to make this thing light to see what was happening in front of them.
"Even their artillery was
firing - everything you could think of - that was going on bashing into all our
"There's no doubt about it,
if you could [imagine] anything like that - yes, we were sneaking away."
Mrs Holmes said she remained very
proud of her father's place in history and the recordings she made.
"I think our war history in
Australia is a little overdone," she said.
"The land settlement of
Australia is a much more interesting story than the war history of Australia,
but we talk on and on about war - like it was Australia's only history.
"So I think we need to get a
perspective about ... our history as Australians. But if we're going to
concentrate on that little bit, I'm pleased to be there."
Mr Clark became a soldier settler
at Dorrigo in northern New South Wales and had 10 children.
He died in 1990 at the age of 98.
In a wide-ranging discussion with her father, they discussed his war experience in Egypt, the Middle East and Gallipoli.
From the 9th Battalion Site
In the clip Pte James Bostock describes those first few minutes to the BBC in 1955 as part of the 40th Anniversary of the landings. The first part of the clip is the recollections of one of the Midshipmen that piloted the boats to shore that morning, well worth listening to as well.
Musical instruments played in Gallipoli trenches restored by Australian War Memorial ahead of Anzac centenary
Until very recently, it ran against museum practice to use historic items like instruments for their original purpose.
The preference was to store or display such items without ever playing them.
But that is no longer the case.
"I think these sounds deserve to be played," AWM curator Chris Goddard said.
"People deserve to hear them," he said, "it can be really chilling to hear these sounds and know the context".
A free concert at the High Court in Canberra on April 12 will bring together several instruments that were played in the trenches and have rarely, if ever, been heard since.
The concert will feature music composed and played at Gallipoli, as well as the instruments that played it.
Anzac Centenary cultural fund fellow Chris Latham has dedicated years to scouring diaries, letters and other first-hand accounts of Gallipoli to discover what role music played at the iconic battleground.
'A place where music didn't exist'Gallipoli was believed to be too grim for music to exist.
Unlike on the Western Front, where soldiers could sometimes retreat from the frontline to nearby towns to drink and hear music, Gallipoli offered no such solace.
"Music sustains the human spirit in a really fundamental way throughout these experiences," Mr Latham said.
"Gallipoli had been described as a place with no music."
There were records of gramophones being played at Gallipoli, but only recently did Mr Latham discover the identity behind the tale of a trumpeter whose music rang out over the trenches.
Sergeant Ted McMahon played a cornet to soothe the spirits of fellow diggers, placing a handkerchief inside the bell of the horn to muffle its sound.
The night before the Battle of the Nek in August 1915, Sergeant McMahon played a popular tune called Rosary.
In modern war we have radio, radar, satellite - but back in those days the bugle was the instrument of war.ADFA bandmaster Graeme Reynolds
Sergeant McMahon's step-granddaughter Kerry Everett has loaned his silver cornet for the Gallipoli-themed concert. The well-made horn has been put through its paces by Sydney Symphony Orchestra trumpeter Paul Goodchild.
Mr Goodchild said playing an instrument that was played in the trenches at Gallipoli was an emotional experience. "It's like having a game of cricket with Don Bradman's bat," he said.
"It's just the most gorgeous instrument and it's an absolute privilege to play it," he said.
A clear call to armsTogether with the barrage of artillery and gunfire, the sounds of bugles and whistles playing were part of the everyday cacophony of war at Gallipoli. Bugles were essential to order on the battlefield.
Many Australians are familiar with the brass horns as the instruments used to play solemn tunes of reflection like The Last Post and Reveille.
But they were also functional tools of battle, issuing orders that could be heard above the din of artillery and gunfire.Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) bandmaster Graeme Reynolds, who is also an Army bugler, has been called upon to play bugles from Gallipoli.
"In modern war we have radio, radar, satellite - but back in those days the bugle was the instrument of war. Primarily tasked with relaying messages to different sections on the battlefield; to lay down heavy fire, to charge, to do a number of different things.
"They would have relayed that sound from trench to trench just in the event that they couldn't hear them over the gunfire." An even more prosaic instrument of war was the trench whistle - used by commanders to order their men into battle.
Some officers purchased their own whistles with distinctive sounds to make sure their commands were heard and understood by the troops. The AWM's Mr Goddard said a range of such whistles is part of the memorial's collection.
"These whistles, because they're associated with mass attacks and mass slaughter are really one of the defining objects of the First World War," Mr Goddard said. In the collection is the silver whistle used to launch the attack on Lone Pine in August 1915.
Brigade major Dennis Malcolm King blasted the police-style whistle three times to signal the start of the offensive. The Turks suffered more than 6,000 casualties, while more than 2,000 Australian died in the battle.
The Australian War Memorial replied to my request for information about Monty's bugle. They don't hold it, and only accept items from known sources, so buried somewhere in the sands are at least two bugles.
It owned two, was loaned three and has now been handed the remaining VC, won by Maj Cuthbert Bromley, which was last heard of in the 1980s.
Maj Bromley's nephew Nick presented the medal to the museum.
The Six VCs Before Breakfast exhibition will be the highlight of the museum's special programme over the weekend of 25-26 April - the first time the VCs have been displayed in one place.
Staff traced Maj Bromley's family through genealogical research after first appealing to find the medal in January 2014.
The major, who was temporarily promoted from captain, received Britain's highest award for bravery along with Cpl John Grimshaw, Pte William Keneally, Sgt Alfred Richards, Sgt Frank Stubbs and Capt Richard Willis for their actions when the 1st Battalion Lancashire Fusiliers landed at Gallipoli in Turkey on the morning of 25 April 1915.
The battalion lost more than half of its men as they landed on W Beach, which was later renamed Lancashire Landing.
Maj Bromley was honoured in his local church, St Leonard's, Seaford and had a road named after him in the East Sussex town.
Eighteen men from the Lancashire regiment were awarded the VC during World War One.
All six medals will be displayed until 16 May.
POWERFUL ANZAC TRIBUTE STANDING GUARD OVER SYDNEY.
If that image doesn’t give you the chills, then you may want to pinch yourself to make sure you’re still alive. This incredibly fitting tribute to all our serving armed forces standing guard over Sydney is something for every Australian to feel proud about; young or old.
OR The wrecks in the Strait - Diving onto the shipwrecks.
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Gallipoli-1915/180766336685 The Ships in the Dardanelles
Anzac Day Original Song https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBU2UsxWKmk
And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda:
She was joined for the ceremony by the Duke of Edinburgh, Prince William, UK Prime Minister David Cameron and Labour leader Ed Miliband among other dignitaries.
Dressed in a black overcoat, fedora hat and white scarf, the Queen laid the first wreath, followed by Mr Cameron.
In the eight-month Gallipoli campaign 140,000 soldiers lost their lives, including more than 34,000 British troops, more than 8000 Australians and almost more than 2500 New Zealanders.
The streets of Whitehall were closed as a wave of colour, pomp and ceremony unfolded, led by the Grenadier Guards in the traditional red uniform and bearskin hats followed by the Royal Marines and Scots Guards.
Australian High Commissioner Alexander Downer and his New Zealand counterpart, Sir Lockwood Smith, joined diplomats from 17 nations including Turkey, France, Canada, India, Pakistan and Belgium.
Despite heavy security following the arrest and charging on Friday of a 14-year-old boy on charges of inciting terrorism overseas, the traditional two minutes' silence at 11am was broken only by the whirr of photographers' cameras.
Earlier at the dawn service close to 5000 people thronged to the Wellington Arch at Hyde Park Corner.
Emily Bonney, 29, and 30-year-old Amanda Morris from Brisbane live and work in London and queued together from 2.30am to grab a good spot.
'It's a really Australian thing, patriotic, and it brings us all together to remember the efforts of the Anzacs,' Ms Bonney told AAP.
'For me, it is uplifting and important to remember what people who came before did for us and the sacrifices made,' Ms Morris said.
A service of remembrance at Westminster Abbey will also be attended by the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh.
- See more at: http://www.skynews.com.au/news/top-stories/2015/04/26/london-anzac-memorial-marked-by-the-queen.html#sthash.cs1pSziq.dpuf
The Last Post
"Last Post" is used in public ceremonials commemorating the war dead, particularly on Remembrance Day in the Commonwealth of Nations. In Australia and New Zealand it is also played on Anzac Day usually before the two-minute silence, which concludes with "The Rouse".
It is unclear when pipers first became a feature of Australian memorial services. In the early decades of the 20th century, Australia had a large expatriate Scottish community, represented by several Scottish battalions in the Militia. It seems likely that the ceremonial presence of a piper became established during the 1920s.
For the fallen
With proud thanksgiving, a mother for her children,
England mourns for her dead across the sea.
Flesh of her flesh they were, spirit of her spirit,
Fallen in the cause of the free.
Solemn the drums thrill: Death august and royal
Sings sorrow up into immortal spheres.
There is music in the midst of desolation
And a glory that shines upon our tears.
They went with songs to the battle, they were young,
Straight of limb, true of eye, steady and aglow.
They were staunch to the end against odds uncounted,
They fell with their faces to the foe.
They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old;
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun and in the morning
We will remember them.
They mingle not with their laughing comrades again;
They sit no more at familiar tables at home;
They have no lot in our labour of the day-time;
They sleep beyond England's foam.
But where our desires are and our hopes profound,
Felt as a well-spring that is hidden from sight,
To the innermost heart of their own land they are known
As the stars are known to the Night;
As the stars that shall be bright when we are dust,
Moving in marches upon the heavenly plain,
As the stars that are starry in the time of our darkness,
To the end, to the end, they remain.
Laurence Binyon (1869–1943)
(Banjo Paterson, “Queensland Mounted Infantry”, 1900)
By January 31st the Brisbane Courier was reporting that labour was being recruited in southern states by the Pastoralist Union and sent to Queensland by ship to break the strike and the Queensland Police began to despatch police to the areas of concern in central and south-western parts of the state, with a “body” of police arriving in Roma on February 11th. By 20th February, the Colonial Government had grown concerned to the extent that it called out the defence force to provide a show of force to the union movement, to prevent the breakdown of public order and maintain the peace.
Mr Tozer was in charge of a group of men returning to base camp when a mob of emus was sighted. The men all wanted to shoot, which was against regulations. Mr Tozer compromised by granting one shot which was successful. The men rode up, dismounted, and in their elation decorated their slouch hats with feathers from the fallen bird. On return to camp, Mr Tozer incurred the displeasure of his commanding officer who ordered the feathers to be removed.
Some discussion took place among the men and as a result Mr Tozer approached his commander to ask General Headquarters to have the emu feathers as part of the dress of this regiment.
The horses this year are better than usual, and the Gympie division as usual bear the palm in this respect, the fine company of the Wide Bay men with their attractive plumes of emu feathers being a credit to their district and their officers.
Approval is given for the wearing of emu plumes and hat puggarees by members of Light Horse units, provided supplies can be arranged regularly without expense to the public.