They were very well represented within the Military, and their achievements are well documented. Their children followed their traditions, and served in most of the corridors of war, as England was involved in so many major battles during the Victorian era. Many lives were lost, and sons buried in far flung parts of the world. Medals were won, battles were lost, and these brave men took enormous risks.
In 1826 George Durnford, son of Clark Durnford was paymaster in Sydney, at the settlement.
During this period there was a George Durnford who fought in the Maori Wars. (lineage unknown)
The New Zealand Wars, which were long known as the Māori Wars, were a series of armed conflicts that took place in New Zealand from 1845 to 1872 between the New Zealand government and indigenous Māori. Though the wars were initially localised conflicts triggered by tensions over disputed land purchases, they escalated dramatically from 1860 as the government became convinced it was facing a united Māori resistance to further land sales and a refusal to acknowledge Crown sovereignty.
The government summoned thousands of British troops to mount major campaigns to overpower the Māori King Movement and also acquire farming and residential land for English settlers.Later campaigns were aimed at quashing the so-called Hauhau movement, an extremist part of the Pai Marire religion, which was strongly opposed to the alienation of Māori land and eager to strengthen Māori identity.
At the peak of hostilities in the 1860s, 18,000 British troops, supported by artillery, cavalry and local militia, battled about 4000 Māori warriors in what became a gross imbalance of manpower and weaponry. Although outnumbered, the Māori were able to withstand their enemy with techniques that included anti-artillery bunkers and the use of carefully placed pa, or fortified villages, that allowed them to block their enemy advance and often inflict heavy losses, yet quickly abandon their positions without significant loss.
Guerilla-style tactics were used by both sides in later campaigns, often fought in dense bush. Over the course of the Taranaki and Waikato campaigns the lives of about 1800 Māori and 800 Europeans were lost and total Māori losses over the course of all the wars may have exceeded 2100.
Violence over land ownership broke out first in the Wairau Valley in the South Island in June 1843, but rising tensions in Taranaki eventually led to the involvement of British military forces at Waitara in March 1860. The war between the government and Kīngitanga (King Movement) Māori spread to other areas of the North Island, with the biggest single campaign being the invasion of Waikato in 1863–64, before hostilities concluded with the pursuits of warlord Riwha Titokowaru in Taranaki (1868–69) and guerrilla fighter Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki on the east coast (1868–72).
Although Māori were initially fought by British forces, the New Zealand government developed its own military force, including local militia, rifle volunteer groups, the specialist Forest Rangers and pro-government Māori. The government also responded with legislation to imprison Māori opponents and confiscate expansive areas of the North Island for sale to settlers, with the funds used to cover war expenses—punitive measures that on the east and west coasts provoked an intensification of Māori resistance and aggression.
Memorial in the Auckland War Memorial Museum for those who died, both European and Māori, in the New Zealand Wars. "Kia mate toa" can be translated as "fight unto death" or "be strong in death", and is the motto of the Otago and Southland Regiment of the New Zealand Army. The flags are that of Gate Pā and the Union Flag.
Not all joined the military, take the son of Clark Durnford, brother to Elias and Andrew.
|*This is 17 Phillimore, but is indicative of the houses in the street|
Elias' senior's nephew Thomas, went with him to New Orleans, again establishing himself in unknown places. He had two sons, and one of them visited Joseph, visited Elias Walker Durnford, according to the papers and was never heard from again.
His other son lived in Louisiana, and was the owner of sugar plantations, unusual in the days for a child of mixed race. He possibly visited in respect of his father Thomas's will.
And the answer to the question.
Historians are very interested in Guy's contact with these Natives, as they are now extinct and not much is known of their traditions and culture. But that is another story, which I will cover at a later date.
The year before Guy and his party landed at Newfoundland harbour, private venturers established the first colony under royal chapter. Within twenty years, other settlements were founded between Trespassey and Bonavista.
But the fishermen, the ship's captains and merchants who sponsored the fishing expeditions wanted Newfoundland to remain a fish preserve. These groups banded together and convinced
I, who had by now ascended the English throne, to give all legal authority to the Fishing Admirals.
These were the first captains to land in Newfoundland harbor each spring. These were rough, tough men who were good fishermen and navigators but not the best to disperse the King's justice. They harassed and bullied the settlers and burned the forests to increase hardships. In spite of this, resident populations increased.
The settlers were helped from 1650 onwards by with New Englanders who came to Newfoundland with ships filled with woolens, rum, salted meat, molasses and sugar. These items were traded for salted cod and fish oil.
In 1662, King Charles I passed the Navigation Acts, which forbid trade with foreign countries as well as between the colonies. This did not stop the determined settlers. Soon, Newfoundland was the centre of a thriving contraband trade.
Britain set out to catch the smugglers. She sent ships to Newfoundland under the guise of bringing the fishing fleet back to England. These ships were actually sent to suppress smuggling
In 1713, Queen Anne's ministers, by the Treaty of Utrecht, made the French a factor in inhibiting the growth of Newfoundland for more than 200 years. The treaty gave the French concurrent fishing rights on most of the northeast coast and the entire West Coast of the island. This was the source of continuous conflicts.
Finally, a naval governor was sent to Newfoundland. Lord North did nothing to aid the settlers. He ordered that "what the settlers wanted raw, they were to get roasted - what they wanted roasted, they were to get raw."
In 1789, the naval commander in Newfoundland ordered his men to destroy every building that had a chimney. This was more than thirty years after Nova Scotia had been granted a representative assembly and become a colony that was assisted by governing officials.
But the settlers of Newfoundland were stout, hearty and determined people, who possessed a lot of grit. They persevered and prevailed.
The English West Country Fishery
At the start of the 17th century, the British cod-fishing industry was centred in the south-western "toe" of England known as the "West Country." In addition, the Channel Islands of Guernsey and Jersey participated regularly. Between 1615 and 1640, 70% of the English vessels that sailed to fish at Newfoundland came from the West Country, a region which had the location, the capital, and the men to assume the leadership in the British fishery at Newfoundland.
Five counties made up the West Country: Dorset, Devonshire, Somerset, Hampshire, and Cornwall. Although the last two soon dropped out of direct involvement in the Newfoundland fishery, both continued to be a source of labour. Since the county of Somerset was involved in a variety of other activities, the fishery became strongly identified with Dorset and Devonshire.
The West Country had an important and flourishing wool and cloth trade in addition to the fishery. But in England as in the rest of Europe, the fishery was thought to be of great economic importance because of the supplementary employment it provided by stimulating dozens of auxiliary trades.
In his Discourse and Discovery of the Newfoundland (1620), Richard Whitbourne described some of the products consumed by the fishery: nets, hooks, leads, lines, rope, bread, and beer. Bakers, brewers, coopers, chandlers, net-makers, tackle-makers, smiths, hook-makers, carpenters, and rope-makers were among the many tradesmen who never left their West Country homes, yet were employed by the fishery just as surely as a splitter or a beach master in Renews.
The West Country Merchant-Venturers: Facing the Risks
The Newfoundland trade was controlled by a small number of West Country merchant-venturers, who often referred to themselves as the "Western Adventurers." They had common interests and concerns, were often related by marriage, and accumulated considerable wealth.
This power and cohesiveness made them very influential within the West Country. At the same time, because the Newfoundland trade was highly competitive rivalries between individual merchants, merchant families, or entire merchant communities could be fierce.
Religious and political differences further divided them. This happened frequently during the 17th century, and it is an indication of how troubled the Newfoundland trade was during that period.
The first 20 years after 1600 experienced rapid expansion in the fishery. By 1620, possibly as many as 300 English ships and vessels annually sailed to Newfoundland, with some West Country ports each sending as many as 80 vessels.
Many factors account for this growth: the end of the war with Spain in 1603, the elimination of the Spanish fishery at Newfoundland, bountiful fish stocks, and an availability of surplus capital. But a succession of hardships following 1620 caused the fishery to shrink and forced some West Country ports quit the fishery altogether.
Until about 1640 the fish trade was plagued by marauding Barbary pirates known as the Sallee rovers. They were renegade seamen from all nations who sailed out of bases in North Africa.
Piracy itself was nothing new to the Newfoundland fishery; the notorious Peter Easton and Henry Mainwaring were only two among the many who had raided Newfoundland harbours during the 1610s. Because it was dispersed and seasonal, the fishery could endure piracy of this sort. since while some harbours suffered, others were left untouched.
The trade was different. The value of the cargoes carried by fishing ships when they left in the spring, or by sack ships approaching market destinations in the fall, was enormous. If one of these was lost, the impact on the merchant-venturer was significant.
A sketch by Edward Barlow of the sack ship Real Friendship in 1668.
Barlow was a mariner aboard her on a voyage from London to Tenerife. The following year, while loading fish in Newfoundland, the vessel caught fire and was lost.
From Edward Barlow, Barlow's Journal of His Life at Sea in King's Ships, East & West Indiamen & Other Merchantmen from 1659 to 1703. (London, Hurst & Blackett, Ltd, 1934) I, 143.
The losses in shipping and men were staggering. In the four years from 1624 to 1628, the town of Poole alone claimed to have lost 20 ships - a figure equal to the number of ships the town had once sent out annually. Thereafter, Poole was only able to send three ships to Newfoundland.
Adding to West Country difficulties were the frequent wars between England and various European countries after 1620. Fishermen were "pressed" into the navy, shipping became a target of enemy attacks, and markets in hostile countries were closed to English fish. Even the mere possibility of war could be disruptive. For example, in 1623 the threat of a war with Spain caused the English government to place an embargo on fish exports to that country.
The English civil war (after 1640) and conflicts with Spain and Holland during the 1650s disrupted the fishery and trade so deeply that the number of ships in the fishing fleet had decreased from 300 to barely one hundred by 1660. Only 43 ships sailed for Newfoundland by the year 1684.
Many West Country ports simply abandoned the fishery altogether: The Cornish ports of Falmouth and Fowey, as well as ports such as Lyme Regis, Weymouth, Southampton, even Plymouth (one of the most important participants at the beginning of the century) all gave up.
The worst years came after 1690 when yet another war, this time with France, caused the English government to prohibit all fishing ships from sailing to Newfoundland. This was a matter of necessity: fishermen were needed to man the navy and as a result, the migratory fishery did not resume until 1693.
Aside from the hazards of piracy and war were all the usual risks associated with a speculative and unpredictable industry and trade. Ships disasters, fraud, poor fish catches and congested markets were all possibilities.
The life of a merchant-venturer was insecure because he might easily prosper in the fishery, only to lose his fortune in other activities. As a result, merchant-venturers, suspicious of new situations, often adopted a pessimistic outlook. Their frequent predictions of doom and collapse, cries of ruin, lamentations, and complaints of meager profits dwarfed by mountainous costs should all be viewed with some scepticism.
Nevertheless, it is true that by the end of the 17th century the English migratory fishery had really been on the brink of collapse. One indication of this is the disappearance of the names of many merchant-venturers who had previously been active in the fishery and trade.
The beginnings of a significant fishery in Cornwall may be traced to the reign of King John and by the time of the Tudors had become of national importance. It was much regulated under the rule of Queen Elizabeth I.In 1582 nearly two thousand mariners are recorded for Cornwall and somewhat more for Devon. In 1602 Richard Carew describes the fisheries of Cornwall and Devon as much more important than those of eastern England. Two methods were in use at the time: seining and drifting. In the early years of the 17th century the fishermen of Cornwall and Devon were also heavily involved in the Newfoundland fisheries.
In the decade 1747–1756 the total number of pilchards dispatched from the four principal Cornish ports of Falmouth, Fowey, Penzance and St Ives averaged 30,000 hogsheads annually (making a total of 900 million fish). Much greater catches were achieved in 1790 and 1796. The majority of the pilchard catch was exported to Italy. Before the mid 18th century the season generally ran from July till November or December but during the 19th century usually from August to October.
Masters was the only Mayor ever to come from Newfoundland. He was born about 1691 at Silly Cove (now Winterton) in Trinity Bay, Newfoundland.
His father, John, came from Langton in Dorset and was an early planter in Newfoundland. John Masters Sr. suffered greatly from French attacks and on one occasion was taken prisoner in a French raid.
He escaped from the French and in 1697 carried his wife, son and four daughters to Poole, where he bought a "low old house at the upper end of High Street" and left his family to return to Trinity Bay to continue fishing.
Shortly after he was captured and murdered by Indians the French had brought to Newfoundland to assist in their raids on English settlers.
His widow set up an Ale house known as the Old Cow in Poole and young John Masters was sent to school in Wimborne Minster, When he was 13 his mother apprenticed him to William Taverner, captain of a Newfoundland ship.
Masters rose to be a ship's mate, spent a few years as a planter in Newfoundland and by 1715 was in command of a small ship, the Frome, fishing mainly in St. John's.
Sir Peter Thompson of Poole, who as a young man was in St. John's in 1716, recalls meeting Masters there and noted that "he was very industrious, split all his shore fish and I thought worked rather too much".
Hard work and drive brought him prosperity. He acquired valuable salmon fishing rights and by the 1730s he was exporting large amounts of fish, mainly from St. John's. He also began importing provisions from New England and sugar, rum and molasses from the West Indies.
About 1740 he formed a partnership with an Irishman, Michael Ballard, who became the Newfoundland agent for the firm. Masters retired to England, married Sarah Taverner, daughter of his former master, and tried his hand at English politics.
Masters first settled in Greenwich and in 1741 tried to become an MP. Unfortunately, however, he did not muster the support within Government then needed for an individual to get elected to Parliament. He had fallen into disfavour with the British Government by opposing the increase of formal authority in Newfoundland.
In Poole Masters is remembered mainly for his turbulent political career. Failing to get elected in London he returned to Poole to try his luck.
He rebuilt the "Old Red Cow" alehouse in Fish Street into a mansion at the cost of £1,500 and took up residence there. He took up the cause of Poole merchants in the Newfoundland trade and tried to get support as candidate for the 1747 General Election.
Despite the support of the White family and considerable expenditure on his campaign, others resented his bullying manner and he failed.
in Poole. He held office again in 1752 and the following year tried to nominate as his successor Aaron Durell a shipbuilder. His opponents supported
George Hyde, who had been nominated by the Aldermen.
There followed one of the most scandalous events in Poole's civic history with fighting in the chamber as both candidates struggled to take the Mayoral chair. In the end Masters' candidate prevailed and Durell served his term in 1753.
Masters himself again failed to get the nomination for Parliament in 1754. He died the next year on a visit to London but was returned to Poole for burial.
To prepare for his retirement, Street bought a country estate at Charlton Marshall, ten miles northwest of Poole, and purchased other properties in Poole itself, among them the High Street mansion and five Hill Street tenements of Thomas Hyde, a Newfoundland trader and oil dealer who had gone bankrupt
It was built in 1798 by Samuel Rolls, Newfoundland merchant who was one of the main heirs of the White family, Quaker merchants and astute businessmen involved in the Newfoundland salt cod trade. Joseph White died in 1771, leaving a reputed fortune of £150,000, the equivalent of millions today.
The ultimate beneficiary of the bulk of his estate was his nephew, Samuel White who died in 1797, leaving his money, business, ships and property in Poole, Newfoundland and elsewhere to his nephews, Samuel Rolls, John Rolls and Samuel Vallis and his great nephew, Samuel White junior. It was on the strength of this legacy, plus his own wealth that Samuel Rolls built his grand mansion.
The initial link between the Lester and Garland families was the marriage in 1779 of George Garland, the son of a yeoman farmer of East Lulworth, Dorset, to Amy Lester. Shortly after the marriage Garland, who had already embarked upon business with his brother and uncle in Poole and Southampton, became a salaried manager in Lester's Poole counting- house.
This event turned his career in a new direction. He was soon managing most of the practical aspects of Lester's Newfoundland trade, on which account he travelled extensively both in England and on the continent, buying supplies for transatlantic shipment and selling the incoming staples of salt cod, train oil, salmon, and other products.
To prepare for his retirement, Street bought a country estate at Charlton Marshall, ten miles northwest of Poole, and purchased other properties in Poole itself, among them the High Street mansion and five Hill Street tenements of THOMAS HYDE, a Newfoundland trader and oil dealer who had gone Bankrupt. In directing his trade, managed in Newfoundland after 1789 by his sons, Street spent most of the winter in Poole and the summers at Charlton Marshall.The manor of Arne was originally in the possession of Shaftesbury Abbey from 948 AD. In Tudor times it passed to George Pitt. The main value of the area came from the saltings originally and later the deposits of ball clay, apart from farming and some smuggling.
Jolliffe's house in West Street Poole
The thriving trade between Poole and Newfoundland meant that there was a great demand for bread to supply the ships and the settlements. In 1779, married Amy Lester, of Benjamin Lester, the leading Newfoundland merchant trading out of Poole at the time. Lester a fleet of ships, and extensive property on both sides of the Atlantic. His only surviving son, John Lester, had poor health and did not play a very active part in the business. George became an employee of the Lester company, travelling widely on the continent to purchase supplies and arrange the sale of . He was also Mayor of Poole in 1788.
I am not sure when the Garlands acquired their High house. After John Masters’ death in 1755, it was by his widow, Sarah who died in 1762. The was then inherited by John’s niece and her husband, George Olive who were living there at least as as 1777. By 1800 it was owned and occupied by George and Amy Garland.
The couple had eleven children. Perhaps because of his large and growing family, George never travelled to Newfoundland himself but he made sure that all his sons had a thorough grounding in the trade. His eldest son, Benjamin Lester Garland went out to Trinity (the headquarters of the Lester/Garland in Newfoundland) to learn all about the trade. In 1799, he was captured at sea by the French and spent some time in captivity in Bordeaux. Of George’s other sons, Joseph Gulston Garland the navy and rose to become a rear-admiral. Joseph’s twin Francis Penton Garland managed a Poole based iron and timber which was part of the Lester empire. Another son, Lester died at the age of fifteen while learning the trade out in Leghorn.
In 1801, George followed his father-in-law in becoming Poole’s Member of Parliament, keeping the seat until 1807. In Parliament he took an independent line and was a cautious supporter of Parliamentary reform. He also sought promotion for his son in the navy. Benjamin Lester died in 1802 and George Garland inherited half of the . Shortly after, Lester was knighted by George III for delivering a loyal address on the occasion of peace with France, but he did not enjoy his new status for long.
In 1805, Sir John died in Bath and the whole of the Lester Newfoundland estate plus most of their property in England came to the Garland family.
In accordance with his grandfather’s will, George’s eldest son, Benjamin changed his last name to Lester, becoming Benjamin Lester Lester. He was not a natural and to his father’s disappointment, refused a partnership in the company. In 1809, George secured his election as M.P. for Poole a role which probably suited him better.
The war with France, which had resumed in 1803, provided both risks and opportunities to the merchants. George Garland was an excellent businessman and made high profits, particularly between 1809 and 1815, adding to the family wealth.
After the Battle of Waterloo brought the war to an end, conditions in the trade changed abruptly. Foreign competition entered the market once more, fish prices plummeted and Poole merchants who were supporting large establishments in Newfoundland found themselves struggling to compete.
By clever management George Garland continued to make a profit but began to reduce his involvement in the trade by selling ships and giving up fishing rooms in Newfoundland. As an investment and to provide for his family, he bought country estates, Stone Cottage near Wimborne and Leeson House at Langton Matravers. A taxation list of 1811 shows that the Garland High Street house was then occupied by Isaac Steel, the son-in-law of Samuel Rolles (the builder of nearby Beech Hurst). George’s brother, Joseph Garland still lived in High Street, probably at No 125.
In 1817, two more of George Garland’s sons, John Bingley and George junior were made partners in the company. They had both served an apprenticeship in branches of the trade in London, Lisbon and Trinity and shown aptitude for business. John Bingley Garland was to be elected to the Newfoundland House of Assembly in 1832 and served as its first Speaker.
In 1822, George Garland was nearly 70 and decided to give up control of the company to his younger partners, although he still remained involved. He also continued to take part in public affairs and served as High Sheriff of Dorset. His charities included the Garland Almshouses at Hunger Hill which he had donated to the town in 1814.
George Garland died in 1825 as a result of a coach accident near Wimborne, having dominated business and public life in Poole for decades. Many of his sons also served on the Corporation and as Mayor. The Garlands gradually withdrew from the Newfoundland trade although they kept a connection through the London company of Robinson, Brooking and Garland. Benjamin Lester Lester inherited the High Street house from his father and continued as an M.P. until 1835. He died in Paris in 1838.
The merchants of Poole prospered through their connections to Newfoundland.
Isaac and Benjamin Lester merchants in fishing industry
Ellis Jervis to Peter Jolliff to serve in Newfoundland 1764
Rev Robert Killpatrick minister Trinity Harbour Newfoundland 1737
John Masters Newfoundland 1698
Henry Thresher to George Kemp merchant to serve Newfounland 1785
John Mc Donald Isle of St Johns America 1794, Elizabeth Bazely
According to the records of Trinity, there is a reference to a Samuel Durnford regarding a Deed.
Why would Samuel Durnford be employing an apprentice?
This Samuel Durnford was a solitor in Poole. And he was the attorney for George Garland and probably his brother Isaac Garland, the merchants involved with the Newfoundland fishing ventures.
This is Pensbury House
Thomas Hyde Durnford, born in Poole, married Ann, lived in London worked as a Solicitor and was the executor and trustee of Andrew Montague Isaacson Durnford's estate in 1858.
Relative or a co-incidence? A bit of both. One wonders how they explained their relationship at the time of making the will, my instincts tell me he had a professional legal relationship with Andrew's son, as he was the witness to his father's signature!
21 Jul 1794
Spouse's first name(s)
Spouse's last name
St James, Poole
Birth, Marriage, Death & Parish Records
Marriages & divorces
This branch of the Durnfords, originates from the Cornwall family.