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Friday, January 2, 2015 Gen Edward Durnford and Elizabeth Langley Their son Edward Congreave Durnford

General Edward Durnford and Elizabeth Langley  second son Edward Congreave Langley Durnford.

1.2 Edward Congreave Langley Durnford

He entered the Royal Marines in 1851 and appointed to the Royal Marine Artillery in 1852.  During the Crimean War he served on HMS James Watt in the Baltic and was present at the siege of and surrender of the Forts of Bomarsund in the Åland Islands off the south-west coast of Finland

The Battle of Bomarsund was fought by an Anglo-French task force against Russian defenses at Bomarsund during the Crimean War

British bombardment
Bomarsund was a 19th-century fortress, the construction of which had started in 1832 by Russia in Sund, Åland Islands, in the Baltic Sea. Bomarsund had not been completed (only two towers of the planned twelve subsidiary towers had been completed). When the war broke out the fortress remained vulnerable especially against forces attacking over land. Designers of the fortress had also assumed that narrow sea passages near the fortress would not be passable for large naval ships; while this assumption had held true during the time of sailing ships, it was possible for steam powered ships to reach weakly defended sections of the fortress.

During the battle, Charles Davis Lucas tossed overboard a shell which had landed on board. The shell exploded before it reached water. For saving his ship he was the first man to be awarded the Victoria Cross

He served briefly with the 2nd Company of the Royal Sappers and Miners. 

Crimean Medal
He was later appointed to the command of mortar-boats and served during the bombardment of Sweaborg on August 9, 1855.  For this service he was mentioned in dispatches and received the Crimean War medal. 

He served with the Baltic Expedition in 1855, and was in command of a mortar in the flotilla during the bombardment of Sveaborg.”

Russian Mortar at the Fort
Taken by the Russians from Sweden.  After taking over the fortress, the Russians started an extensive building program, mostly extra barracks, and extending the dockyard and reinforcement to the fortification lines. The long period of peace following the transfer of power was shattered by the Crimean War of 1853–56. The allies decided to engage Russia on two fronts and sent an Anglo-French fleet to the Baltic Sea. For two summers the fleet shelled the towns and fortifications along the Finnish coast. The bombardment of Suomenlinna (then known as Sveaborg or Viapori) lasted 47 hours and the fortress was badly damaged. They were unable to knock out the Russian guns; after the bombardment the Anglo-French fleet sent no troops ashore and instead set sail for Kronstadt.

He subsequently served on HMS Forth until 1856.  In 1862 he was promoted to Captain.  From Sept. 1867 to May 1870 he was Staff Captain, Royal Marine Artillery and appointed to Superintendent of Artificers.  

He was in charge of all public works in progress at Eastney Barracks and Fort Cumberland.  He was promoted to Brevet-Major in 1872 and promoted to (honorary) Lieutenant-Colonel on May 8, 1877 at his retirement.  

Fort Cumberland is a pentagonal artillery fortification erected to guard the entrance to Langstone Harbour, east of the naval port of Portsmouth on the south coast of England. It was sited to protect the Royal Navy Dockyard, by preventing enemy forces from landing in Langstone Harbour and attacking from the landward side. Fort Cumberland is widely recognised as the finest example of a bastion trace fort in England.

This print is attributed to Col Durnford 1854 Bomerusnd
The Battle 

Julia Penrice

He married Julia Penrice on 3rd March 1859 in Norfolk.  

And now for some more family jigsaw puzzle connections!

Julia's parents were

John Penrice and Maria Catherine Jarrett.  

John's father Thomas Penrice was a surgeon-apothocary and he inherited inherited the bulk of the fortune -of an acquaintance  at least £300,000  and seems to have put it to good use. A later source describes him as a man who had “been blessed with a natural strong mind improved by a good education .

John Prenice joined the King’s Regiment of Light Dragoons, which later became the King’s Regiment of Hussars. He took part in Sir John Moore’s Corunna campaign in Spain in 1808-09, where he saw plenty of action under Lord Paget, later 1st Marquess of Anglesey. During the retreat to Corunna, John Penrice was “taken ill with a fever”  and “had to be left behind near Villafranca”. He “fell into the hands of the French under Marshal Soult, who sent him to Verdun, in France, where he was detained a prisoner of war for several years.” He seems to have been released by 1813, when he became a captain, “and retired from the service about the latter part of the year 1815.”

John Penrice was a  Captain, 15th Hussars. They lived at  Great Yarmouth; Witton House, Norfolk.    and he died in 1844.           

Maria Catherine Jarrett was the daughter of Herbert Newton Jarrett and Maria Berners.  Maria died 1867.   The Jarrett family owned estates in Jamaica  at Orange Valley.

Unknown Photographer c 1900 Collection Andrew Kerr Jarrett

Our first stop on the tour of the estate was the ruin of the great house. Rich in  history, the estate was first purchased from the Allen family in 1757 by Herbert Newton Jarrett II. who built the Great House in 1760.  Herbert Newton Jarrett II had a great part to play in the existence of what was  without a doubt one of the most impressive ruins that has been wonderfully preserved -- the Slave Hospital. It was the work of architect E. Earl and, when built in 1797 by Jarrett, was one of only three estates to provide a hospital for  its slaves. 

Julia was one of a number of children:

1.     Major John PENRICE JP, DL . Born on 5 Dec 1818. John died on 12 Oct 1892;  He was                         a Major, Norfolk Artillery and they lived in Great Yarmouth  m Charlotte Ann Cobb.                          Charlotte died in 1887

2.     Thomas Penrice JP, DL (1820-) On 10 Jun 1852  he married Louisa HOWMAN, daughter of
          Rev. George Ernest HOWMAN (LATER LITTLE) & Jane Sarah Wightwick KNIGHTLEY.              Louisa died in Mar 1880.
3.     Maria Catherine Penrice  (1821-1887) Herbert Newton2, Herbert Newton1). Born on 19 Sep               1821. Maria Catherine died in Southsea, Hampshire, on 25 Nov 1887 she married General Sir             George  Colt LANGLEY KCB. George Colt died on 28 Dec 1896 in Southsea  Hampshire. He           was in the   Royal Marine Light Infantry and educated at  Adams’ Grammar  School, Newport,            Shropshire.    He was the brother of Elizabeth Langley, Edward Congreave Durnford's mother.
           (Their son was Major Lionel Langley who was killed by a tiger in India).

4.    Caroline Leonora Penrice b 1822 d 1902married Colonel Henry W. EVANS.He was in the 9th             Regiment, Bombay  Native Infantry.Colonel H.W. Evans [of the Bombay Native Infantry]                   served in the Sutlej Campaign, 1847-48 (medal and clasps).” He also served in the “Indian                   Mutiny, 1857-58 (medal and clasps)”.
         (Their son was Lt Colonel Henry Theodore Penrhys Evans.  he married Blanche Ewing.
            He was in the 2nd East Lancashire Regiment.

          Another son William Horace Penrhys-Evans married Margaret Ellen Clow in New Zealand.                William wished to join the army but failed in the medical, he then emigrated to New Zealand in          1872.     His son was in the 2nd Reinforcements Auckland Mounted Rifles 
"Sgt T. Evans."
comment: (Probably)
Rank Last Held: Sergeant Major
Forename(s): Henry Theodore Penrhys
Surname: Evans
Serial No.: 13/681
First Known Rank: Sergeant
Next of Kin: W.H. Penrhys Evans, Bombay, Auckland, New Zealand
Enlistment Address: Bombay, Auckland, New Zealand
Military District: Auckland
Body on Embarkation: 2nd Reinforcements
Embarkation Unit: Auckland Mounted Rifles
Embarkation Date: 14 December 1914NZMRA Members and members of the public are invited to add material to these photographs taken by Trooper Foote during his involvement in the Sinai Campaign beginning in 1916.  Photographs from the camera of Trooper Fredrick Foote, Signaller with the Auckland Mounted Rifles Regiment, NZMR Brigade.   The images below reproduced from a "Eastman Negative Album" containing 100 x negatives, unfortunately not all the negatives survived the 90 odd year ordeal in storage, so not all the negatives made it to this display. Some strips were blacked out, others changed to become clear pieces of Celluloid. However the majority were able to be viewed, although even some of these are showing the effects of time.
Fred itemized each of the negatives with a reference comment in the album's numbered record sheets in the front of the folder and each of these comments is notated below in bold type. Other comments are from NZMR members.

What an amazing find, photographs that were so old, depicting Amy Life.
5.     Isabella Penrice  (1824-1880)  Born on 6 Apr 1824. Isabella died in Dec 1880; 
          she married Colonel Arthur Walton ONSLOW, son of Sir Henry ONSLOW Bart. Arthur                     Walton Onslow died on 28 May 1895 in Brighton, Sussex. He was in the 41st Regiment,                      Bengal Native Infantry.Colonel Onslow served in the First Afghan War (medal and clasp).” In            June 1857, during the Indian Rebellion (Mutiny), the native troops of the 41st Regiment                      mutinied at Sitapur (Seetapore). Onslow saw further service during the Rebellion and was                     awarded the Indian Mutiny Medal.

6.      Emma Vernon Penrice was born 1826-1914 unmarried.

7.       Herbert Newton Penrice (1828 -1890)   Herbert Newton died in Mar 1890. Occupation:                       Captain, Royal Engineers.

8.     Rev. Charles Berners Prenice  1828- 1913 He was the  Rector of Plumstead Parva, Norfolk. 
           Education: Trinity College, Cambridge.  He married Catherine Howman, sister of Louisa who             married his brother Thomas Penrice

9      Julia Penrice who married Edward Congreave Durnford

10     Fountaine Jones (1833-1843)

The website has heaps of information about the Penrice family  They do have a photo attributed to Edward Congreave Durnford, which seems to be of Anthony William Durnford, his brother unless they look very alike.  This one though is from a portrait, AWD's photos are all military!   

Edward Congreave Durnford and Julia Penrice's children:

1.2.1 Julia Mabel Durnford                        born 6 May 1861   d  Feb 1952  She married Arthur                                                                                Lydekker     in Harpenden Hertfordshir 10t August 1882.

1.2.2  Edward William Durnford               born 1863  died 1863
1.2.3  Edward Francis Penrice Durnford    born  July 1865  died December 1954 in 
                                                                                        Lothingland, Suffolk
1.2.4  Maria Catherine Durnford                born 1867   died  1867

National Maritime Museum in Greenwich holds a collection of his items, they are not on display.   

(Suggest anyone checks with the museum if wanting to see any of their collections, we went, and nothing that was supposed to be there on our list was, and on a Bank Holiday information is limited)

Object IDWPN1170
DescriptionRoyal Marines sword, which belonged to Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Congreve Langley Durnford (active 1851-1877). The hilt of the sword consists of a steel open half-basket guard, with three bars, a fluted pommel and a plain back. The black fish-skin grip is bound with twisted silver wire. The slightly curved steel blade has a flat back and a wide groove extending to within 260mm of the double-edged spear point. The obverse of the blade is engraved with the words 'Royal Marine Artillery' on a garter surrounding a grenade, with a crown and a lion above, and further decoration above and below. The reverse of the blade is engraved on the shoulder with the words 'DUDLEY, Grand Parade, PORTSMOUTH', and decorated with a crown over the Royal cipher 'VR', with further decoration above and below. The steel scabbard has two bands with rings and a shoe. The reverse of the scabbard is engraved with the words 'DUDLEY, Grand Parade, PORTSMOUTH'. Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Congreve Langley Durnford (active 1851-1877) became a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Marines on the 30th December 1851. On the 8th January 1853 he became a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Marine Artillery. He was promoted to the rank of 1st Lieutenant on the 24th February 1854, to Captain on the 27th March 1862, to Brevet Major on the 14th September 1875 and retired as a Lieutenant-Colonel on the 8th May 1877.
Date made1867

Object IDUNI0491
DescriptionTunic of Lieutenant-Colonel E.C.L. Durnford, Royal Marine Artillery. The tunic is of blue wool and has a standup collar of buckram faced with red wool and edged with gold lace. There is heavy gold piping around the upper and lower edges of the collar. There is a silver threadwork badge of an exploding grenade on either side of the collar which is for Artillery. Both shoulders have plaited gold shoulder straps with rank badges. The sleeves are heavily decorated with gold frogging. The tunic is single-breasted and closes with eight gilt brass buttons with Royal Marines Artillery insignia. The edges of the tunic are piped with red wool. There is a large brass hook at the waist for the sabretache. There are no exterior pockets. On the back are two hip buttons of gilt brass with Royal Marines Artillery insignia. The tunic is lined with black silk sateen and the chest and back are padded and quilted. The waistband is of glazed leather and the interior pockets are lined with brown wool/silk twill. The sleeves are lined with black and white stripped silk and the cuff lined with black silk.
Date made1881

He wrote a book in conjunction with Frances Colenso, a friend of his brother Anthony William Durnford.   Anthony Durnford's story follows.

Avail e-book
Author of "A Soldier's Life and Work in South Africa, 1872 to 1879: A Memoir of the Late Colonel A.W. Durnford, RE" (1882)       and co-author, with Frances Ellen Colenso, of "The History of the Zulu War and Its Origin" (1880).

He is buried at St Nicholas Churchyard                                                
Crimea Medal in Museum
St Albans District
Hertfordshire, England

So many of these family members shared a common background, whether it be estates in West Indies, service in the Military, in particular India, living with their family in foreign lands, choosing marriage with others of a similar rank or ilk, either from the Military or Clergy.

Then their children followed in their footsteps, particularly the sons, as very few women were in the military until Florence Nightingale pioneered in the Crimea War.

About the name Congreave.  What relationship to the Durnford's was a Congreave?  Did he feature in the maternal lines? but that proved not to be.

However,  William Congreve was responsible for using rockets to assist in warfare. 

The Indian Forces were using rockets,  

Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan organized Rocket
 artillery brigades, or Cushoons,  against the British East India Company during the Anglo-Mysore Wars.
A military tactic developed by Tipu Sultan and his father, Hyder Ali, was the use of mass attacks with rocket artillery brigades on infantry formations. Tipu Sultan wrote a military manual called Fathul Mujahidin in which 200 rocket men were prescribed to each Mysorean rocket artillery brigade known as Cushoon. Mysore had 16 to 24 cushoons of infantry. The areas of town where rockets and fireworks were manufactured were known as Taramandal Pet ("Galaxy Market").

 In the Third Anglo-Mysore War of 1792, there is mention of two rocket units fielded by Tipu Sultan, 120 men and 131 men respectively. Lt. Col. Knox was attacked by rockets near Srirangapatna on the night of 6 February 1792, while advancing towards the Kaveri river from the north. The Rocket Corps ultimately reached a strength of about 5000 in Tipu Sultan's army. Mysore rockets were also used for ceremonial purposes. When the Jacobin Club of Mysore sent a delegation to Tipu Sultan, 500 rockets were launched as part of the gun salute.

He began in 1804 by buying the best rockets on the London market, but found that their greatest range was only 600 yards. He knew that Indian princes had equipped their armies with rockets which would travel much farther than this. 

After spending ‘several hundred pounds’ of his own money on experiments he was able to make a rocket that would travel 1,500 yards. He now ‘applied to Lord Chatham ( the responsible minister in charge of the Ordnance Department) for permission to have some large rockets made at Woolwich’

Permission was granted and ‘several six-pounder rockets’ made ‘on principles I had previously ascertained’ achieved a range of ‘full two thousand yards’

By the spring of 1806 he was producing 32-pounder rockets ranging 3,000 yards. Congreve enjoyed the friendship of the Prince Regent, who supported his rocket projects, and in whose household he served as an equerry from 1811. 

Congreve Rockets.
The Prince Regent was also the Elector of Hanover and he was awarded the honorary rank of Lieutenant Colonel in the Hanoverian army's artillery in 1811. 

In 1813 he declined the offer to command of the Rocket Corps, with rank in the Regiment of Artillery.

Another of our extended family was also in the same Corps.

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