Jat Geata Geatwa Great Gaut Geot Goth to poppa Sulzbach
Research on The Goths
From a researcher: If the Ukrainian Rulers from Wikipedia are correct and Amal was born in the 120s, he would likely have been the last Amal head of family to have not taken part in the migration to "Oium" or the Scythian plains (present Ukraine).
The Amali, also called Amals or Amalings, were the leading dynasty of the Goths, a Germanic people who confronted the Roman Empire in its declining years in the west. According to Gothic legend, the Amali were descended from an ancient hero whose deeds earned him the epithet of Amala or "mighty."
Tacitus described the Goths as well as the neighbouring Rugii and Lemovii as carrying round shields and short swords, and obeying their regular authority.
Pliny  refers to the voyager Pytheas, who visited Northern Europe in the 4th century BC. In this passage, Pytheas states that the "Gutones, a people of Germany," inhabit the shores of an estuary of at least 6,000 stadia (the Baltic Sea) called Mentonomon, where amber is cast up by the waves. Lehmann (mentioned above under Etymology) accepted this view but manuscript variant states Guiones rather than Gutones. In Pliny's only other mention of the Gutones,  he states that the Vandals are one of the five races of Germany, and that the Vandals include the Burgodiones, the Varinnae, the Charini and the Gutones. The location of those Vandals is not stated, but there is a match with his contemporary Ptolemy's East Germanic tribes. As those Gutones are put forward as Pliny's interpretation, not Pytheas’, the early date is unconfirmed, but not necessarily invalid.
The earliest material culture associated with the Goths on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea is the Wielbark Culture, centered around the modern region of Pomerania in northern Poland. This culture replaced the local Oksywie or Oxhöft culture in the 1st century, when a Scandinavian settlement was established in a buffer zone between the Oksywie culture and the Przeworsk culture.
This area was influenced by southern Scandinavian culture from as early as the late Nordic Bronze Age and early Pre-Roman Iron Age (ca. 1300 – ca. 300 BC). In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today's northern Poland from ca. 1300 BC (period III) and onwards was so considerable that this region is sometimes included in the Nordic Bronze Age culture.
The Goths are believed to have crossed the Baltic Sea sometime between the end of this period (ca 300 BC) and AD 100. Early archaeological evidence in the traditional Swedish province of Östergötland suggests a general depopulation during this period. However, this is not confirmed in more recent publications. The settlement in today's Poland may correspond to the introduction of Scandinavian burial traditions, such as the stone circles and the stelae especially common on the island of Gotland and other parts of southern Sweden.
However, other scholars are very sceptical of this hypothesis, claiming that there is no archaeological evidence for a substantial emigration from Scandinavia.
2nd century: The Alans, having arrived from Asia to the Azov Sea and Don River basin the previous century, have integrated with the Yancai of the region, forming a new kingdom of mostly nomadic herdsmen in the region. The group would soon ally with the nearby Sarmatians and form a confederation that would act as a momentary (5-year duration) defence to the Chernyagov Culture (to their west) during the Hun invasion.
160s - 180s: As the Goths move inland from the Baltic Sea (vacating their Wielbark culture homes), they apparently displace a number of German tribes. The tribes abutting the Roman frontier are driven, as a result, into the Marcomannic Wars; the Vandals (part of the Przeworsk culture) are themselves driven south into war with the Romans. They appear not to have disrupted the cultures to the east, as the "Galindai" and "Sudinoi" remained in place around present Vilnius from Ptolemy's time (2nd century) to Peter von Dusburg's time (13th century).
Amal is of course the name that the clan would take as it passed through the Scythian plains and through the dark days of Hun subjugation into the days of the collapse of the Roman Empire. It's unknown why Cassiodorus gave him the epithet of "The Fortunate".
Likely, Amal's world consisted of an expanding Gothic territory extending up the Vistula (Wisla) valley. Toward the end of his life, the Przeworsk culture, consisting of Vandals and allied tribes, were probably displaced by the expanding Goth kingdom in present Poland. Eventually, the decision would be made to colonize "Oium" in what would be termed the Goth migration of the third century.
The Ostrogoths (Latin: Ostrogothi or Austrogothi) were a branch of the later Goths (the other major branch being the Visigoths). The Ostrogoths, under Theodoric the Great, established a kingdom in Italy in the late 5th and 6th centuries. The Ostrogoths traced their origins to the Greutungi and a semi-legendary kingdom north of the Black Sea in the 3rd and 4th centuries.
Invading southward from the Baltic Sea, the Ostrogoths, at the time known as the Greuthungi,[dubious discuss] built up a huge empire stretching from the Dniester to the Volga river and from the Black Sea to the Baltic shores.[dubious discuss] The Ostrogoths were probably literate in the 3rd century,[dubious discuss] and their trade with the Romans was highly developed. Their Danubian kingdom reached its zenith under King Ermanaric, who is said to have committed suicide at an old age when the Huns attacked his people and subjugated them about 370.
After their subjugation by the Huns, little is heard of the Ostrogoths for about 80 years, after which they reappear in Pannonia on the middle Danube River as federates of the Romans. However, a pocket remained behind in the Crimea when the bulk of them moved to central Europe, and these Crimean Ostrogoths existed until at least the 16th century. After the collapse of the Hun empire after the Battle of Nedao (453), the Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great first moved to Moesia (c. 475–488) and later conquered the Italian Kingdom of the German[dated info] warrior Odoacer. Theodoric became king of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in 493 and died in 526. A period of instability then ensued, tempting the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian to declare war on the Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort to restore the former western provinces of the Roman Empire. Initially, the Byzantines were successful, but under the leadership of Totila, the Goths reconquered most of the lost territory until Totila's death at the Battle of Taginae. The war lasted for almost 20 years and caused enormous damage and depopulation of Italy. The remaining Ostrogoths were absorbed into the Lombards who established a kingdom in Italy in 567 AD.
The Visigoths under Alaric I sacked Rome in 410, defeated Attila at the Battle of the Catalunian Plains in 451, and founded a Kingdom in Aquitaine which was pushed to Hispania by the Franks in 507, converted to Catholicism by the late sixth century, and in the early eighth century conquered by the Muslim Moors. Subsequently, the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius began the Reconquista with his victory at the Battle of Covadonga, and founded the Kingdom of Asturias, which eventually evolved in to modern Spain and northern Portugal.
While its influence continued to be felt in small ways in some west European states, the Gothic language and culture largely disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the 16th century a small remnant of a Gothic dialect known as Crimean Gothic was described as surviving in the Crimea
They had a daughter Amalaberge D Ostrogothie born 385 died 433.
She married Wildelphe De Saxe born 380 died 408. He was born in Sachsen Germany.
They had a daughter Basine De Saxe. Basine was born 415 and died in 438. The family were in Sachsen, Germany.
She married Chlodwig Von Koeln born 410 died 455. Chlodwig came from Koln region of Westfalen in Germany. They had a daughter Basina. Through marriage she was known as Basina von Thuringa of Franks.
Basina was born 438 and died 470 463. She married King Basinus of Thuringii von Thuringen 11 b 440 – 506
She wasn’t satisfied with her life with the Baron so she chased after another King!
She married Childeric 1 the Merovingian King of the Salen Franks
Basina left her husband, king Bisinus and went to Roman Gaul. She herself took the initiative to ask for the hand of Childeric I, king of the Franks, and married him. For as she herself said, "I want to have the most powerful man in the world, even if I have to cross the ocean for him". This remark of hers may have been related to Childeric's successful invasion of the Roman Empire and his attempt to settle a Frankish kingdom on Roman soil.
Basina‘s name is probably Low Franconian for 'female boss'. She is the mother of the man who is remembered as the founder of the Frankish realm and modern France. She (not her husband Childeric) named her son Chlodovech, but he is better remembered under his Latinized name, Clovis I. The simple fact that Chlodovech ‘s name comes from Basina is remarkable since it was a common practice for the Franks to name a son after a member of the family of the male-line of ancestors.
Through the ages historians have been intrigued by the story of Basina since she obviously acted as a player and not as bystander — which is not uncommon for women of the German clans, but highly uncommon for the Romans.
Childeric succeeded his father Merovech as king of the Salian Franks, traditionally in 457 or 458. With his Frankish warband he established his capital at Tournai, on lands he had received as a foederatus of the Romans, and for some time he kept the peace with his allies.
In 463 Childeric fought in conjunction with the Roman General Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul based in Soissons, to defeat the Visigoths, who had hoped to extend their dominion along the banks of the Loire River. After the death of Aegidius, Childeric assisted Comes ("count") Paul of Angers, together with a mixed band of Gallo-Romans and Franks, in defeating the Goths and taking booty. Saxon raiders under the command of a certain Adovacrius (perhaps but not surely Odoacer) reached Angers, but Childeric arrived the next day and a battle ensued. Count Paul was killed and Childeric took the city. Childeric, having delivered Angers, followed a Saxon warband to the islands on the Atlantic mouth of the Loire, and massacred them there.
In a change of alliances, he joined forces with Odoacer, according to Gregory of Tours, to stop a band of the Alamanni who wished to invade Italy.
Marriage, children, and deathGregory of Tours, in Libri Historiarum (Book ii.12), records the story of the expulsion of Childeric by the Salian Franks for seducing their wives. He was exiled for eight years in Thuringia with King Basin and his wife, Queen Basina. He returned only when a faithful servant advised him that he could safely do so by sending him half of a gold piece that Childeric had split with him before his exile. The book also describes his arrival in Tournai with Basina, who had left her husband to be with him.
|Church of Saint-Brice at Tournai|
According to another legend, Merovech was conceived when Pharamond's wife encountered a Quinotaur, a sea monster which could change shapes, while swimming. Though never stated, it is implied that she was impregnated by it. This legend was related by Fredegar in the seventh century and may have been known earlier. The legend is probably a back-formation or folk etymology used to explain the Salian Franks' origin as a sea coast dwelling people and was based on the name itself. The "Mero-" or "Mer-" element in the name suggests a sea or ocean (see Old English "mere," Latin "mare," or even the Modern English word "mermaid", etc.). The "Salian" in "Salian Franks" may be a reference to salt, a reminder of their pre-migration home on the shores of the North Sea (alternatively, it may refer to the Isala or IJssel river behind which their homeland, the Salland, may have been located). The legend could also be explained in a much easier way.
The sea monster could have been a foreign conqueror, coming from the sea, taking the dead king's (Chlodio or Pharamond) wife to legitimise his rule. Another explanation holds that the sea monster which could change shape is actually the Roman form of government; and that the Merovingians and their Frankish legacy would indeed continue the legal and cultural tradition of the Roman Empire throughout Central and Northern Europe (and thus the world) in direct and indirect ways.
Childeric's tomb was discovered on 27 May 1653 by a mason doing repairs in the church of Saint-Brice in Tournai, Belgium. Numerous precious objects were found, including a richly ornamented sword, a torse-like bracelet, jewels of gold and garnet cloisonné, gold coins, a gold bull's head, and a ring with the inscription CHILDERIC REGIS ("of Childeric the king"), which identified the tomb. Some 300 golden bees were also found. Archduke Leopold William, governor of the Southern Netherlands (today's Belgium), had the find published in Latin. The treasure went first to the Habsburgs in Vienna, then as a gift to Louis XIV, who was not impressed with the treasure and stored it in the royal library, which became the Bibliothèque Nationale de France during the Revolution. Napoleon was more impressed with Childeric's bees and when he was looking for a heraldic symbol to trump the Bourbon fleur-de-lys, he settled on Childeric's bees as symbols of the French Empire.
On the night of November 5–6, 1831, the treasure of Childeric was among 80 kilos of treasure stolen from the Library and melted down for the gold. A few pieces were retrieved from where they had been hidden in the Seine, including two of the bees. The record of the treasure, however, now exists only in the fine engravings made at the time of its discovery and in some reproductions made for the Habsburgs.
They had a son Clotaire 1 Old Franks. Born 497 died 561
When the Ostrogoths ceded Provence to the Franks, he received the cities of Orange, Carpentras, and Gap. In 531, he marched against the Thuringii with his nephew Theudebert I and in 542, with his brother Childebert I against the Visigoths of Spain. On the death of his great-nephew Theodebald in 555, Chlothar annexed his territories. On Childebert ‘s death in 558 he became sole king of the Franks.
He also ruled over the greater part of Germany, made expeditions into Saxony, and for some time exacted from the Saxons an annual tribute of 500 cows. The end of his reign was troubled by internal dissensions, his son Chram rising against him on several occasions. Following Chram into Brittany, where the rebel had taken refuge, Chlothar shut him up with his wife and children in a cottage, which he set on fire. Overwhelmed with remorse, he went to Tours to implore forgiveness at the tomb of St Martin, and died shortly afterwards at the royal palace at Compiègne.
- Gunthar, predeceased father
- Childeric, predeceased father
- Charibert, King of Paris
- Guntram, King of Burgundy
- Sigebert, King of Austrasia
- Chlothsind, married Alboin, King of the Lombards
On Chlothar ‘s actual death in 561, the Frankish kingdom was divided between his sons in a new configuration. Each son ruled a distinct realm, which was not necessarily geographically coherent but could contain two unconnected regions, from a chief city after which his kingdom is called. Charibert received Neustria (the region between the Somme and the Loire), Aquitaine, and Novempopulana with Paris as his capital. His chief cities were Rouen, Tours, Poitiers, Limoges, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Cahors, and Albi. Guntram received Burgundy, then Sigebert received Austrasia (including Rheims) with his capital at Metz, and the youngest brother Chilperic received a compact kingdom with Soissons as its capital.
Charibert and his wife Ingoberga had a daughter, Bertha (539–c. 612). Charibert also had several concubines. By Merofleda, a wool-carder's daughter, and her sister Marcovefa, he had daughters: Berteflede (a nun in Tours) and Clothilde (a nun in St. Croix, Poitiers). By Theodogilda (or Theudechild), a cowherd's daughter; Charibert had his only son, who died in infancy. His brutal behaviour resulted in his excommunication,the first ever of a Merovingian king.
Charibert was scarcely more than king at Paris when he married his daughter Bertha to Ethelbert, the pagan King of Kent. She took with her Bishop Liudhard as her private confessor. Her influence in the Kentish court was instrumental in the success of St. Augustine of Canterbury's mission in 597.
Though Charibert was eloquent and learned in the law, he was one of the most dissolute of the early Merovingians. He was excommunicated, and his early death in 567 was brought on by his excesses. He was buried in Blavia castellum, a military fort in the Tractatus Armoricani. At his death his brothers divided his realm between them, agreeing at first to hold Paris in common. His surviving queen (out of four), Theudechild, proposed a marriage with Guntram, though a council held at Paris in 557 had outlawed such matches as incestuous. Guntram decided to house her more safely, though unwillingly, in a nunnery at Arles.
King Charibert I married Ingoberge of Paris born 520 in Paris and died 589.
They had a daughter. Aldeberge Blithilde his daughter was born 539 and died 612. She married Ethelbert, the pagan King of Kent. Ethelbert was the first King to convert to Christianity.
They had a son Arnoldus De Saxony, the Bishop of Metz. He was born 560 in Metz and died in 601 in Sachsen, Germany.
He married Oda de Heristal born 556 and died 640.
They had a daughter Itta of Metz born 592 and
she died in 652.
The following story of Itta and her daughter is most interesting.
On the advice of the missionary bishop Saint Amand, bishop of Maastricht, after Pepin's death, she founded the Benedictine nunnery at Nivelles, with a monastery under the abbess. She herself entered it and installed as abbess her daughter Gertrude, perhaps after resigning the post herself.
She had by Pepin another daughter, Abbess Begga of Andenne who married Ansegisel, son of Arnulf of Metz. By Begga, she is the grandmother of Pepin of Herstal and one of the matriarchs of the great Carolingian family. Her sons were Grimoald, later mayor of the palace, and father of King Childebert the Adopted. Her second son Bavo (or Allowin), became a hermit and was later canonized
Both her daughters were later canonised, as was she. Her feast day is May 8.
She married Pepin of Landen, who was Mayor of the Palice of Austrasia.
Pepin (also Peppin, Pipin, or Pippin) of Landen (c. 580 – 27 February 640), also called the Elder or the Old, was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia under the Merovingian king Dagobert I from 623 to 629. He was also the mayor for Sigebert III from 639 until his own death.
Pepin's father is named Carloman by the Chronicle of Fredegar, the chief source for his life. His byname comes from his probable birthplace: Landen, modern Belgium. He is sometimes called Pepin I and his other nicknames (Elder and Old) come from his position at the head of the family called the Pippinids after him. Through the marriage of his daughter Begga to Ansegisel, a son of Arnulf of Metz, the clans of the Pippinids and the Arnulfings were united, giving rise to a family which would eventually rule the Franks as the Carolingians.
They had a daughter Begga of Landen born 615 and died 693 in Metz. She married Ansegisel of Metz, Mayor de Heristel. He was born 602 died 679.
Saint Begga (also Begue, Begge) (615 – 17 December 693) was the daughter of Pepin of Landen, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, and his wife Itta. On the death of her husband, she took the veil, founded seven churches, and built a convent at Andenne on the Meuse River (Andenne sur Meuse) where she spent the rest of her days as abbess. She was buried in Saint Begga's Collegiate Church in Andenne.
Her parents were Pepin of Landen and his wife, Itta.
She married Ansegisel, son of Arnulf, Bishop of Metz, and had three children: Pepin of Heristal, Martin of Laon, and Clotilda of Heristal, who married Theuderic III of the Franks. Ansegisel died while out hunting. Begga made a pilgrimage to Rome, and upon her return built seven churches at Andenne on the Meuse.
|Pepin of Heristal right being offered services of St Huburt|
They had a son Pepin Karl Martel Mayor of Palace D Heristal born 635 died 714
Pepin (c. 635 – 16 December 714), commonly known as Pepin of Herstal, was a Frankish statesman and military leader who de facto ruled Francia as the Mayor of the Palace from 680 until his death. He took the title, Duke and Prince of the Franks, upon his conquest of all the Frankish realms.
The son of the powerful Frankish statesman, Ansegisel, Pepin worked to establish his family, the Pippinids, as the strongest in Francia. He was able to realise his dreams by becoming Mayor of the Palace in Austrasia in 680. Pepin subsequently embarked on several wars to expand his power. He united all the Frankish realms by the conquest of Neustria and Burgundy in 687. In foreign conflicts, Pepin increased the power of the Franks by his subjugation of the Alemanni, the Frisians, and the Franconians. He also began the process of evangelisation of Germany.
Pepin's statesmanship was notable for the further diminution of Merovingian royal authority, and for the acceptance of the undisputed right to rule for his family. Therefore, Pepin was able to name as heir, his grandson, Theudoald. But, this was not accepted by his powerful bastard son, Charles Martel, leading to a civil war after his death in which the latter emerged victorious.
His concubine was Aupais Alpaide Elphide Chalpaida de Heristal.
They had a child - Charles “mayor of the Palace in Martel 688 - 741
|His statue in the Louve|
The illegitimate son of Frankish strongman, Pepin of Heristal, and a noblewoman named Alpaida, Martel successfully asserted his claims to power as successor to his father as the power behind the throne in Frankish politics. Continuing and building on his father's work, he restored centralized government in Francia and began the series of military campaigns that re–established the Franks as the undisputed masters of all Gaul. In foreign wars, Martel subjugated Bavaria, Alemannia, Frisia, vanquished the pagan Saxons, and halted the Islamic advance into Western Europe at the Battle of Tours.
Martel is considered to be the founding figure of the European Middle Ages. Skilled as an administrator and warrior, he is often credited with a seminal role in the development of feudalism and knighthood. Martel was a great patron of Saint Boniface and made the first attempt at reconciliation between the Papacy and the Franks. The Pope wished him to become the defender of the Holy See and offered him the Roman consulship. Martel refused the offer, but it was a sign of the things to come.
Although Martel never assumed the title of king, he divided Francia, like a king, between his sons Carloman and Pepin. The latter became the first of the Carolingians, the family of Charles Martel, to become king. Martel's grandson, Charlemagne, extended the Frankish realms to include much of the West, and became the first Emperor since the fall of Rome. Therefore, on the basis of his achievements, Martel is seen as laying the groundwork for the Carolingian Empire.
In summing up the man, Gibbon has written, Martel was "the hero of the age," whereas Guerard describes him as being the "champion of the Cross against the Crescent."
He Married Atula of Austrasia born 690 died 741.
They had a daughter Aldana, Duchess Gerniud de Austrasia Mainz Mayence born 715 died 730
She married Count Gerold de Mayence born 700 died 761.
They had a son William of Gellone, Duke Gerold Childebr born 730 died 779 in Aichen Germany
He married Duchess Imma de Allemania 736 – 798
They had a daughter Hildegarde de Vinzau 758 - 783 who became the Queen of Italy.
Hildegarde married King Charlemagne the King of Italy. He was born 742 died 813.
She became Consort 5th June 774 on her husband’s coronation as Lombardic King Charlemagne (pron.: /ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn/; French pronunciation: [ʃaʁləmaɲ]; c. 742 – January 28, 814 at Aachen), also known as Charles the Great (Latin: Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was the founder of the Carolingian Empire, reigning from 768 until his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdom, adding Italy, subduing the Saxons and Bavarians, and pushed his frontier into Spain. The oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, Charlemagne was the first Emperor in Western Europe since the fall of the West Roman Empire three centuries earlier.
Becoming King of the Franks in 768 following the death of his father, Charlemagne was initially co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman I's sudden death in 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. Through his military conquests, he expanded his kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe.
Charlemagne continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in Italy, and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He also campaigned against the peoples to his east, forcibly Christianizing them along the way (especially the Saxons), eventually subjecting them to his rule after a protracted war. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned as "Emperor" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day.
Called the "Father of Europe" (pater Europae), Charlemagne's empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. His rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, religion, and culture through the medium of the Catholic Church. Through his foreign conquests and internal reforms, Charlemagne encouraged the formation of a common European identity. Both the French and German monarchies considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire.
Charlemagne died in 814 after having ruled as Emperor for just over thirteen years. He was laid to rest in his imperial capital of Aachen in today's Germany.
His son Louis the Pious succeeded him as Emperor.
King Charlemagne and Queen Hildegard had a son Pepin born 777 died 810
Pepin was the second son of Charlemagne by his then-wife Hildegard. He was born Carloman, but was rechristened with the royal name Pepin (also the name of his older half-brother Pepin the Hunchback, and his grandfather Pepin the Short) when he was a young child. He was made "king of Italy" after his father's conquest of the Lombards, in 781, and crowned by Pope Hadrian I with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.
He was active as ruler of Lombardy and worked to expand the Frankish empire. In 791, he marched a Lombard army into the Drava valley and ravaged Pannonia, while his father marched along the Danube into Avar territory. Charlemagne left the campaigning to deal with a Saxon revolt in 792. Pepin and Duke Eric of Friuli continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. The great Ring of the Avars, their capital fortress, was taken twice. The booty was sent to Charlemagne in Aachen and redistributed to all his followers and even to foreign rulers, including King Offa of Mercia. A celebratory poem, De Pippini regis Victoria Avarica, was composed after Pepin forced the Avar khagan to submit in 796.
This poem was composed at Verona, Pepin's capital after 799 and the centre of Carolingian Renaissance literature in Italy. The Versus de Verona (c. 800), an urban encomium of the city, likewise praises king Pepin. The "Codex Gothanus" History of the Lombards hails Pepin's campaign against Benevento and his liberation of Corsica "from the oppression of the Moors."
His activities included a long, but unsuccessful siege of Venice in 810. The siege lasted six months and Pepin's army was ravaged by the diseases of the local swamps and was forced to withdraw. A few months later Pepin died.
He married Bertha, whose ancestry is not known from any reliable source although spuriously she has been called the daughter of William of Gellone, count of Toulouse. He and Bertha had five daughters: (Adelaide, married Lambert I of Nantes; Atala; Gundrada; Bertha; and Tetrada), all of whom but the eldest were born between 800 and Pepin's death and died before their grandfather's death in 814. Pepin also had an illegitimate son Bernard. Pepin was expected to inherit a third of his father's empire, but he predeceased him. The Lombard crown passed on to his illegitimate son Bernard, but the empire went to Pepin's younger brother Louis the Pious.
King Pepin married Bertha De Toulouse born 777. But his son Bernard born 797 died 818 was illegitimate.
Bernard was the illegitimate son of King Pepin of Italy, the second legitimate son of the Emperor Charlemagne. In 810, Pepin died from an illness contracted at a siege of Venice; although Bernard was illegitimate, Charlemagne allowed him to inherit Italy. Bernard married Cunigunda of Laon in 813. They had one son, Pepin, Count of Vermandois.
Prior to 817, Bernard was a trusted agent of his grandfather, and of his uncle. His rights in Italy were respected, and he was used as an intermediary to manage events in his sphere of influence - for example, when in 815 Louis the Pious received reports that some Roman nobles had conspired to murder Pope Leo III, and that he had responded by butchering the ringleaders, Bernard was sent to investigate the matter.
A change came in 817, when Louis the Pious drew up an Ordinatio Imperii, detailing the future of the Frankish Empire. Under this, the bulk of the Frankish territory went to Louis' eldest son, Lothair; Bernard received no further territory, and although his Kingship of Italy was confirmed, he would be a vassal of Lothair. This was, it was later alleged, the work of the Empress, Ermengarde, who wished Bernard to be displaced in favour of her own sons. Resenting Louis' actions, Bernard began plotting with a group of magnates: Eggideo, Reginhard, and Reginhar, the last being the grandson of a Thuringian rebel against Charlemagne, Hardrad. Anshelm, Bishop of Milan and Theodulf, Bishop of Orléans, were also accused of being involved: there is no evidence either to support or contradict this in the case of Theodulf, whilst the case for Anshelm is murkier.
Bernard's main complaint was the notion of his being a vassal of Lothair. In practical terms, his actual position had not been altered at all by the terms of the decree, and he could safely have continued to rule under such a system. Nonetheless, "partly true" reports came to Louis the Pious that his nephew was planning to set up an 'unlawful' - i.e. independent - regime in Italy.
Louis the Pious reacted swiftly to the plot, marching south to Chalon. Bernard and his associates were taken by surprise; Bernard travelled to Chalon in an attempt to negotiate terms, but he and the ringleaders were forced to surrender to him. Louis had them taken to Aix-la-Chapelle, where they were tried and condemned to death. Louis 'mercifully' commuted their sentences to blinding, which would neutralize Bernard as a threat without actually killing him; however, the process of blinding (carried out by means of pressing a red-hot stiletto to the eyeballs) proved so traumatic that Bernard died in agony two days after the procedure was carried out.
At the same time, Louis also had his half-brothers Drogo, Hugh and Theoderic tonsured and confined to monasteries, to prevent other Carolingian off-shoots challenging the main line. He also treated those guilty or suspected of conspiring with Bernard treated harshly: Theodulf of Orleans was imprisoned, and died soon afterwards; the lay conspirators were blinded, the clerics deposed and imprisoned; all lost lands and honours.
King Bernard married Kunigunda Cunegonde de Laon. She was born 797 and died 835.
They had a son Count Pepin II Lord Peronne Quentin born 818 and died 840.
- Bernard (c. 844 – after 893), count of Laon
- Gerberge (born c. 854)
- Pepin (c. 846–893), count of Senlis and lord of Valois (877–893)
- Herbert I of Vermandois (c. 850–907)
- Beatrix (born c. 854)
- Mathilde (born c. 857)
- Adelaide (born c. 858)
They had a daughter Poppa Sulzbach. She married Ancitil Count de Bayeaux and was known as Poppa De Senlis Countess De Bayeux. She died in 1026.
What interesting people these ancestors were.
There are many more stories associated with each of them, that can be researched and read about.