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Tuesday, December 2, 2014

40.3.5 Researching the Durnfords in Wiltshire - William Durnford 1590- His ancestors

The earliest recorded information provided from researchers shows that lineage descends from William Durnford born around 1590.    However it is not possible at this time to connect the dots back to the first records of Durnfords in Durnford, other than to confirm the first one handed back their lands was a William

Some background of the times, and this relates to probably William born 1590 which is our lineage.

At this point in time England history, a Civil War was unfolding.

One William Durnford, a Royalist Musketeer, although heavily indebted and with many children was the most heavily fined local man, probably because he was a constable and had been active against Parliament and supporters.

His son was in arms at Bruton.

Another small freeholder and tenant to Bulls was Nicholas Pitman, a Royal Quarterman who fought at Weymouth.  

William (perhaps also known as Dr Duck) was a known delinquent and his tenants may have had Royalist sympathies.  His tenant at Cadbury Hon Alice Willoughby had Parliamentary troops billeted in her home.

In 1621 and 1644 Sir John Berkeley entertained Charles I, 1644 was of course during the civil war. At the conclusion of the war Sir John fled into exile with Charles II , during this exile he was promoted to Baron Berkeley of Stratton in 1658, after the restoration he acquired various lands in London hence Bruton St., Stratton St., Berkeley St, and Berkeley Square.

During the Civil war a minor incident occurred which was still causing a little friction at the turn of this century. On February 23rd 1642 the villagers of nearby Batcombe who were Parliamentarians paid Royalist Bruton a visit but were beaten off as described in the Parish record.

Charles I at Edgehill!
The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. It was fought near Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday, 23 October 1642.  A soldier would be lucky to survive! 500 dead and 1500 injured in the Battle of Edgehill!

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") in the Kingdom of England over, principally, the manner of its government. The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.

Oliver Cromwell was on one side and Charles I on the other, (Royalists)

Charles was the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612

From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647.

 Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649.

 The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. In 1660, the English Interregnum ended when the monarchy was restored to Charles's son, Charles II.

Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell. Catherine was married to Morgan ap Williams, son of William ap Yevan of Wales and Joan Tudor (reportedly a granddaughter of Owen Tudor, which would make Oliver Cromwell a distant cousin of his Stuart foes).

 The family line continued through Richard Cromwell (c. 1500–1544), Henry Cromwell (c. 1524–6 January 1603), then to Oliver's father Robert Cromwell (c. 1560–1617), who married Elizabeth Steward or Stewart (1564–1654) on the day of Oliver Cromwell's birth. Thomas thus was Oliver's great-great-great-uncle

The social status of Cromwell's family at his birth was relatively low within the gentry class. His father was a younger son, and one of 10 siblings who survived into adulthood. As a result, Robert's inheritance was limited to a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes.Cromwell himself, much later in 1654, said "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity".

Records survive of Cromwell's baptism on 29 April 1599 at St. John's Church, and his attendance at Huntingdon Grammar School. He went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, which was then a recently founded college with a strong puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree, immediately after the death of his father.

 Early biographers claim he then attended Lincoln's Inn, but there is no record of him in the Inn's archives. He is more likely to have returned home to Huntingdon, for his mother was widowed and his seven sisters were unmarried, and he, therefore, was needed to help his family.

The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I; the exile of his son, Charles II; and the replacement of English monarchy with, at first, the Commonwealth of England (1649–53) and then the Protectorate (1653–59) under Oliver Cromwell's personal rule. 

The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England ended with the victors consolidating the established Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although this concept was legally established only as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688

Early years: 1599–1640 Relatively few sources survive which tell us about the first forty years of Oliver Cromwell's life. He was born at Cromwell House in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599,[5] to Robert (c.1560-1617) and Elizabeth Steward. He was descended from Catherine Cromwell (born circa 1482), an older sister of 

Hinchingbrooke House from Cromwell to the Montagus

His great grandfather Richard Cromwell was given Hinchingbrooke House in 1538.  It subsequently became the home of our Lord Sandwich of Montagu ancestors.  Cromwell House is no more, but the area was near Devizes, where the Battle of Roundway Down was fought in 1643.

In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution, as were the remains of John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton. 

(The body of Cromwell's daughter was allowed to remain buried in the Abbey.) Symbolically, this took place on 30 January; the same date that Charles I had been executed. 

His body was hanged in chains at Tyburn. Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until 1685. Afterwards the head changed hands several times, including the sale in 1814 to a man named Josiah Henry Wilkinson, before eventually being buried in the grounds of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1960.

The Battle of Roundway Down was fought on 13 July 1643, during the First English Civil War. A Royalist cavalry force under Lord Wilmot won a crushing victory over the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller who were besieging Devizes in central Wiltshire, which was defended by Lord Hopton. Roundway Down and Oliver's Castle are about 1.5 km (0.93 mi) north of Devizes

Hinchingbrooke house is a Tudor country house built around an early 13th century nunnery. It was given by Henry VIII to *Richard Cromwell in 1538 at the time of the Dissolution. Queen Elizabeth I came here, King James I was a regular visitor and Oliver Cromwell played here as a child. The next owners, the Montagu family, soon to become the Earls of Sandwich, also played an important part in British history and the House remained their ancestral home until the 1960's.

*Great grandfather of Oliver Cromwell

In all probability our first ancestors in this area were from:

Sir William Durnford

In 1222 John, son of Bernard, and his wife Sibyl conveyed the manor of Durnford to William of Durnford,  who held it in 1242–3.

Walter son of Bernard was the *mesne lord in 1242–3 and William of Durnford held the estate of him. From then until 1410 the manor descended with Little Durnford manor.

In 1286 William of Durnford, presumably another, conveyed it to (Sir) Henry de Préaux, who conveyed it in 1322 to John Wahull or Woodhill (d. 133

So Sir William de Derneford had the lands at Durford granted back to the family from William Marshall!

However it is impossible at this point to confirm whether this Sir William is one of our ancestors, or that as was the tradition, almost every family had a William!  Makes a difficult taste to join the dots!

Here are some timelines for Sir William de Derneford, who, died sometime around 1286, when his son also William conveyed the lands to Sir Henry de Preaux.

There are other references to other members of the de Derneford family which will follow in a post.

But while researching, there was a reference to the Arms included in a story about the Bluet and St Maur families, who were neighbours of Sir William, and particularly in reference to the coat of arms.

Arms of Bluet de Dernford and St Maur

It is likely that the manor of Salisbury passed from the Bluets to the St Maur family of Penhow through the marriage of either William de St Maur or his son Roger to a daughter of Williams As Reed points out she woud not only have been heir to his lands but also a heraldic heiress as well Reed noted that the arms of St Maur/Seymour family of Penhow were gules two wings cojoined in lure or and that this is one of the rarest heraldic devices in the medieval period.

He went on to show that the St Maur immediate neighbours Sir William Bluet and Sir William de Dernford bore arms that only differed in  tinctures.

Sir William de Dernford held the manor of Crick east of Penhow along the road from Striguil to Carelon and Sir William Bluet held Langston immediately to the west of Penhow on the same road 
Both Bluet and de Dernford witnessed charters for William St Maur William Bluet his brother Ralph and de Derneford all witness a charter of William abbot of Grace Dieu 1267 and the same three knights witnessed an undated charter of Bartholomew de Mora William Bluet and de Derneford also both served in the Scottish campaigns of Edward I  It seems very likely that three families associated in the same area with such similar devices were related by blood

Sir William Bluet ought to have housbote and heybote to his house at Langston from the Conquest.

All these lands were, it seems taken from the Conquest.  

Argent two wings conjoined in lure sable

There is also another set of arms for a William de Derneford, in St George's Roll, E318

This it would seem is the arms of Sir William who lived in Crick Manor, which is almost the same as his neighbours.

Fine Roll C 60/63, 50 HENRY III (1265–1266)

William de Derneford' gives half a mark for an assize to be taken before Adam .

Survey of the Forest of Wentwood 1271

On the Saturday next after the feast of St Michael, in the open court of Strogul, in the 55th year of the reign of King Henry, the son of King John, before William de Walston, then Steward of Strogul, there were presented those who ought to have housbote and heybote in Wentwood.

The Jury:
  • The Abbot of Tintern
  • The Prior of Strogul
  • The Prior of St. Kinsmarks
  • Sir Robert Fitz Payn, Knt.
  • Sir William Bluet, Knt.
  • Sir William Denford de Crick, Knight
  • Sir Roger De la More, Knt.
  • Sir Roger Seymour, Knt.
  • Sir Barthol. De la More, Knt.
  • Matthew Deneband, Esq.
  • Robert De la More, Esq.
  • John Martill, Esq.
Who say upon the faith which the owe to their Lord that
  1. Sir William Bluet ought to have housbote and heybote to his house at Langston from the Conquest.
  2. Sir William Seymour to his house at Penhow from the Conquest.
  3. Sir Thomas de Huntley to his house at St. Brides by reason that he holdeth of the Lordship of Strogul.
  4. John Martill, Esq. in like manner to his house and lands at Llanvagues. They say also that the said John and his ancestors always had housbote and heybote at Lanvihangel, by reason that his ancestors have always been summoned and bound, [to attend the courts], and that his heirs of his successors after his death being found under age at Lanvihangel, although they hold not of the Earl, yet the Earl ought to have the marriage of such heir or heirs.
  5. Sir Robert Fitz Pain to his house at Lanvair from the Conquest.
  6. Roger de Wilcrick ought to have housbote and heybote to his house at Wilcrick from the conquest according to his tenement there.
  7. Sir Roger Seymour ought to have housbote and heybote to his house in Undy for half a fish pool in Magor of the fee of Undy. And the said Roger ought to have housbote and heybote to his house in Magor near the East Common, called the Little Common, on one side, and abutting upon the way from Aberwaitha towards Wentwood, by reason that John Rose held it to him and his heirs for ever.
  8. Sir Bartholemew De la More and his tenants ought to have housbote and heybote at Undy, and at the west end of Undy, in like manner by charter, but at the Moor nothing but by favour.
  9. Robert De la More ought to have housbote and heybote to his house at Porteston by charter.
  10. William Durand in like manner to his house at Redwick by charter.

Sir William Denford to his house at Crick. His father was first enfeoffed in the tenement at Crick by the old Marshall by charter, as his lawful inheritance; and his said father in his time, and the said William ever since the said feosment have had housbote and heybote as of right from the conquest.

In 1277 William de Derneford (Willielus de Derneford) Knight is called to perform Military Services due from R. le Bygod, Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England - Muster at Worcester in Eight Days of St John the Baptist 1 July

As he was a knight, it was his duty to collect an army of supporters, and report for duty!

Edward II (abt 1300) On Oct 30 Caerphilly, A Pardon to William de Derneford and others and allof whatsoever condition of the parts of Netherwent, for their rebellion and adherence to rebels and all felonies from 1 October last, on condition they do not rise against the king again or assist the rebels.

Caephilly is a town in Wales.  Netherwent is in close to Wales and site of some battles.

In 1301 he is again summonsed from the Counties of Oxford and Berks to perform Military Service in person against the Scots - Muster at Berwick on Tweed on the Nativity of St John the Baptist 24 June

So in 1301 William has to go to Scotland to fight against another William!

The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
The First War (1296–1328) began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. The Second War (1332–1357) began with the English-supported invasion by Edward Balliol and the "Disinherited" in 1332, and ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick.

The wars were part of a great national crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining times in the nation's history. At the end of both wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent nation. The wars were important for other reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare.

Next, his efforts were directed towards Scotland. Initially invited to arbitrate a succession dispute, Edward claimed feudal suzerainty over the kingdom. In the war that followed, the Scots persevered, even though the English seemed victorious at several points.

At the same time there were problems at home. In the mid-1290s, extensive military campaigns required high levels of taxation, and Edward met with both lay and ecclesiastical opposition. These crises were initially averted, but issues remained unsettled. When the King died in 1307, he left to his son, Edward II, an ongoing war with Scotland and many financial and political problems.

Stirling Castle
Further campaigns by Edward in 1300 and 1301 led to a truce between the Scots and the English in 1302. After another campaign in 1303/1304, Stirling Castle, the last major Scottish held stronghold, fell to the English, and in February 1304, negotiations led to most of the remaining nobles paying homage to Edward and to the Scots all but surrendering.

At this point, Robert Bruce and William Lamberton may have made a secret bond of alliance, aiming to place Bruce on the Scottish throne and continue the struggle. However, Lamberton came from a family associated with the Balliol-Comyn faction and his ultimate allegiances are unknown.

After the capture and execution of Wallace in 1305, Scotland seemed to have been finally conquered and the revolt calmed for a period.

(Hung dried and quartered literally, in Westminster Abbey, poor William)

Still he is remembered at Stirling today on the Freedom Statue, with someone else's face!


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