1769 Obtained commission in the Royal Engineers 28 July 1769
of Dunkirk, according to the Treaty of 1763
account of Captain Conner, alias Batchelor or the Commodore. March 31 1772
|Old Map of Plymouth|
and West Florida
(to his brother Elias) 26/5/1780 - 4/6/1783
Fort Poople and Fort St Catherine.
Governor Popple energetically fortified the island by repairing the existing defenses and built new forts including the small fort at Little Head, St. David's which was named Fort Popple in his honour. The fort was repaired by Captain Andrew Durnford in 1793 In 1793, Captain Andrew Durnford strengthened the battery at St. Catherine's Point and built a new battery with a guardhouse on the hill behind the fort
Report" of that year: "To the unequal distribution of that carbonate of lime in solution I
attribute, not only the caverns and sandflaws, but the pinnacle The most remarkable
groups are at Tobacco Bay, St. George's Island, and at the North Rock
The forts at Bermuda number more than 90 and the fortifications account for a large proportion of heritage listings in Bermuda. The works of Andrew Durnford R.E. at the Martello Tower, Fort Cunningham, Alexandra Battery and artillery structures of Fort Victoria
He re-built Paget Fort
|Letters re Dunkirk|
The relationships between Andrew Frazer and his wife's grandfather John Peter Desmaretz, and Andrew Durnford, cross in many fields as does that of Stillingfleet Durnford, who was in the Office, and that of Desmaretz Durnford, whose records and achievements were attributed to Andrew.
They all worked at Dunkirk, they trained and were taught, at the Office of Ordinance, both Andrews were in West Indies at the same time!
***Lt Col Andrew Frazer FRSE (sometimes spelt Fraser; died 1792), was a Scottish soldier and engineer. He served as lieutenant-colonel of engineers, designing and superintending the construction of Fort George. He was the architect of St Andrew's Church, on George Street, Edinburgh.
He spent a large part of his career working in Portsmouth dockyard where he drew up numerous plans for the dockyard, town and defences.
This map of 1744 gives an excellent idea of the scale of fortifications for Portsmouth.
Note the Gun Wharf, separate from the fortified town itself. The Victuallers Key for supplies to be brought in and the staple diet of many a poor family living on the coast oysters, represented by Oyster Street.
Desmaretz himself was buried in the Garrison Church where his epitaph gives a glimpse of his possible origins, it has been suggested that he may have been a Hugenot.
(Plymouth was also the home of the Prison hulks, where prisoners were kept, prior to leaving for the Colonies)
As the Royal Navy increased its military capacity and imperial duties so it moved into the realm of science to keep it at the cutting edge of military technology, exploration and imperial expansion.
Sailors like Captain Cook and Tobias Furneaux set off from Plymouth to map the world, chart the stars and find suitable anchorages and refuelling stops for the ships of the Royal Navy. Cook left from Plymouth in 1768 on the Endeavour.
In 1772 he set off from Plymouth on his second voyage on the Resolution. This voyage nearly came to grief before it began when the ship was nearly foundered on the rocks below the Citadel.
William Bligh was given the mission of moving breadfruit from Tahiti to the Caribbean so that the plantations there might find a more efficient foodstuff for their workers and slaves. The Royal Navy had gone beyond being a mere military arm and its base at Plymouth was the perfect launch pad for its expanding scientific horizons.
Artists and Botanists were also attached to ships as they travelled the world looking for new species or commercial activities that the British economy could get a head start on. The most famous of these would be Charles Darwin who sailed from Plymouth on a five year voyage in 1831. This voyage would form the foundation for his theory of evolution and showed just how far the Admiralty was prepared to go in subsidizing the pursuit of knowledge and a better understanding of the world.
At Stonehouse the Royal Navy had completed a new hospital in 1762 and a few years later the bridge across Stonehouse Creek was built, thus giving easy access to Plymouth Dock. Stonehouse seemed like an ideal place for a barracks and a site close to Mill Bay was chosen. There was only one other building in the vicinity, the Longroom, which was a popular location for balls and other forms of entertainment.
The barracks were started in 1781 on land bought from Lord Mount Edgcumbe. The design followed a pattern used elsewhere in Britain, notably Chatham, and comprised three accommodation blocks around a parade ground. The fourth side, to the west, consisted of only the Guardroom, the parade ground being separated from Barrack Street by railings. The north block accommodated the junior officers, the south block was home to the senior officers, while the men and NCOs were housed in the much larger east block. The Commandant's residence was at one end of the south block. The barracks were first occupied in 1783.
(Stonehouse and the lands, were owned by the Durnford family from Cornwall!