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Saturday, November 29, 2014

40.1.2 Establishing the early Durnfords Landholdings in Cornwall

When considering where ancestors lived 1000 years ago, it is important to remember that they did not have surnames, rather they belonged to an area, ie de West Holme, and unless they were well educated, in the Church they could not write. 

 After the invasion, there became a distinct language problem.  The people of the south west spoke a language of their own, as did the Scots.  Communication was difficult, and William had to rely on some trusted Anglo Saxons in order to relate to the holders of lands.  It is also important to remember the families had numerous children, a great many died, and there were no records, apart from those kept by the Priests.

All lands owned prior to the invasion, by Anglo Saxons were confiscated, and placed under the control of King William who distributed them to his loyal followers.

Research has revealed that the de Dereneford families lived in several locations in Cornwall and Devon, some of those places are included here.  Originally some of the lands were known as Devon then become part of Cornwall.


In the east part of the parish there were two estates at ALUREDSTON in 1066, both in Lydney hundred. One comprised three hides held by Bondi, the other two hides held by Ulnod. In 1086 both were held by William of Eu, a claim to Bondi's manor by Henry de Ferrers being dismissed on the grounds that it had formerly been held by Ralph de Limesi, whose estates were acquired by William of Eu c. 1075.

Lords of the Middle Ages were those who leased land or other property to an individual or individuals.  In the Middle Ages one had to be of the nobility before they could be a lord.

Tidenham Manor ruins

 Aluredston did not form part of the grant of Woolaston to Tintern Abbey by Walter de Clare in 1131  but remained part of the lordship of Striguil and until 1302 followed the same descent as Tidenham manor, being held by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, in 1223.

West Holme, a manor, farm, hamlet, and tything, in Hasler hundred, situated about a mile and a half east of Stoke, on a rising ground near the south side of the the river in the Isle of Purbeck.

Sir W. Dugdale says, “Holme” in Saxon signifies a place wholly or partly compassed with waters, or in a nook between two rivers.

The name of this place anciently was always written Holne.

In Domesday book, Walter de Clavile held Holne in demesne, and it was taxed for two hides and a virgate; Eldred held it before the Conquest. The posterity of Walter de Clavile continued owners in the reign of Edw. I., when William Claville left issue two daughters, Margaret and Alice, who were his co-heirs.

It was held of the honour of Gloucester, by service of one knight’s fee. In an assize roll of the 12. Hen. IV. We have a curious history of the descent of this manor, showing the insecurity of property, the disregard of rights of minors, and the difficulty of obtaining justice at that remote period. In an assize at Dorchester on Monday next after the Feast of St. Peter in Cathedrâ, Robert Chyke and Johanna his wife, Thomas Mere and Agnes his wife, John Fry and Margery his wife, and William Burdon and Alice his wife, sought to recover from Thomas Brideport and Margaret his wife, six messuages, 100a. of arable, 20a. of meadow, 200a. of pasture, 100a. of moor, 20a. of wood, and a moiety of a water mill in West Holne.

The jury find that on the death of William Clavell before mentioned, his estates were divided between his two daughters, and, on a partition, Holne was allotted to Margaret the eldest.

She married John Russel of Tyneham, after whose death she, by charter dated on Sunday the morrow of St. Peter ad Vincula, 32 Edw. I. (2 Aug. 1304), released and quitclaimed to William Russel her son and heir, and to Alice daughter of John de Derneford, whom he shortly after married, and to the heirs of William, all her right and interest in the lands in West Holne, which fell to her by the death of William Clavile of Holne, her father.

After the death of William Russel, Alice his widow married John Smedmore, and had issue by him one daughter Elizabeth Smedmore, who became the wife of Robert Sherard.

By her first husband Alice de Derneford had a son John Russel, who, being under age at her death, was kept out of his inheritance by John Smedmore, his step-father. On attaining his majority, however, he made his entry, but was ousted by John Smedmore.

 After the death of the latter, Elizabeth Smedmore his daughter entered and took possession as his heir-at-law. She married Robert Sherard and had issue. John Russel made verbal claim to the estate during the whole of his life, and once made an entry thereon, but never recovered actual possession.

He died during the lifetime of Robert Sherard, who survived his wife and attained possession of the property. During his tenure of it, Henry Smedmore, uncle and heir-at-law of Elizabeth Sherard, being brother of John Smedmore before mentioned, supposing as he alleged that Robert Sherard held the estate for his life, as tenant by the curtesy, by charter dated in the Feast of the Annunciation 36 Edw. III. (25 March, 1362), conveyed the reversion to Thomas de Brideport and his heirs, by the name of the reversion of the moiety of the manor of West Holne in Purbeck, and Robert Sherard attorned and afterwards surrendered his life estate to the said Thomas Brideport.

All this was done whilst John Russel, the son of John and Alice de Derneford, was still in his minority. Thomas de Brideport, by indenture dates at Holne on Sunday next after the Feast of Petronilla the Virgin, 37 Edw. III. (4 June, 1363), settled the premises, by the name of the manor of Holne, on himself and Alianor his wife and the heirs of their bodies, remainder to his own right heirs.

They had issue Thomas de Brideport, against whom the present action was brought. On John Russel’s attaining his majority, he claimed the premises against the said Thomas and Alianor, but made no entry, for Thomas de Brideport threatened him that if he did he should be beaten.

Thomas de Brideport then died, and Alianor his widow married William Payn senior, against whom John Russel continued to prefer his claim, but verbally only, and he did not enter. The fact was he had been arraigned concerning the death of someone, and fearing to make William Payn his enemy, he on that account did not venture to enter.

On his death he left issue John Russel his son and heir, who died a minor without issue, and four daughters, who became their brother’s co-heirs, and who, together with their husbands, were the plaintiffs in the present assize.

The husbands of the co-heirs entered in right of their wives, and were seized of the premises until they were ousted by Thomas Bridport the defendant. But whether this ouster amounted to a disseisin or not, the jury declare they are unable to decide, and crave the discretion of the court.

The justices seem to have had a difficulty in making up their minds upon this point of law, for the parties were to appear at Ilchester, on Thursday next after the Feast of St. Peter in Cathedrâl(26 Feb. 1411), to hear judgement given. Judgement, however, was again postponed and was not finally delivered till Monday next after the Feast of St. Margaret the Virgin, 13 Hen. IV. (26 July, 1412), when it was pronounced at Dorchester in a special assize in favour of the plaintiffs, who were adjudged to recover the land with the intermediate profits as well as the costs they had incurred in the suit.

East Stonehouse was one of three towns that were amalgamated into modern-day PlymouthWest Stonehouse was a village that is within the current Mount Edgcumbe Country Park in Cornwall. It was destroyed by the French in 1350. The terminology used in this article refers to the settlement of East Stonehouse which is on the Devon side of the mouth of the Tamar estuary, and will be referred to as Stonehouse.
Settlement in the area goes back to Roman times and a house made of stone was believed to have stood near to Stonehouse Creek. However other stories relate to land owned in the 13th century by Robert the Bastard. This land subsequently passed to the Durnford family through marriage to the Edgecombe family in the 14th and 15th centuries. The site of the original settlement of Stonehouse is now mostly occupied by the complex of Princess Yachts. One wall survives as a listed building.

As part of our commemorations for the 100th anniversary of the amalgamation of the 'Three Towns' of Plymouth, Devonport and Stonehouse we'll be featuring a work of art connected to each. Here our focus is on Stonehouse and this lovely painting of Admiral's Hard.

Although it's a very different scene to what we'd witness today, there are some familiar sights including a Royal William Yard building to the left, sailboats out on the water and people queuing up to cross the river.

In the foreground you can see a group of people having a picnic to pass the time. To their left a man in a black hat and red jacket looks like a soldier out with his family. I'm not sure how practical some of the women's beautiful dresses would have been for getting in and out of the boats!

Did you know that the ferry crossing at Cremyll dates back to Norman times?

It was originally owned by the Valletort family who had houses on the Cornish bank of the Tamar.
In the 18th century the growth of Plymouth Dock (Devonport) brought increased usage, including the transport of mail on horseback to most areas of Cornwall.

The old river crossing from Devil's Point to Barn Pool, near Mount Edgcumbe House, was eventually moved to Cremyll.

By 1884 the rowing boats that are depicted in this painting were replaced by a steam launch, reducing the crossing from 30 to 15 minutes.

Though known as William Gibbons of Plymouth, the man who created this painting was actually born in Exeter.

The son of a shoemaker, he moved here to work as an artist and delighted in recording the bustling life of the town and the changing moods of the sea. He is buried in Ford Park Cemetery.

One of King William's largest landholders was William of Eu.

He came over with William, and he was rewarded for his efforts, as they all were:

William of Eu, (died January 1097) was a first generation Anglo-Norman aristocrat and rebel. Most historians identify him with Count William of Eu, who succeeded his father, Robert, at latest by 1093.

However Professor David Douglas disputed the identification, basing himself on the genealogical researches of Edmund Chester Waters. In support of Douglas, while the west country estates of William were confiscated by the Crown in 1095, the strategically important Honour of Hastings was left in the hands of the Counts of Eu. It seems likely therefore that different people are being considered.

William of Eu held some 77 manors in the west of England and had been amongst the rebels against William II in 1088. He made his peace with the King, but with his wife's nephew, William of Aldrie, he conspired with Roger de Lacy and Robert de Mowbray to murder William II and install the king's cousin Stephen of Aumale.

(Changing sides must have been the order of the day)

In 1095 the rebels impounded four Norwegian trading ships and refused the king's demand to return the merchandise.

King William conducted a lightning campaign, outflanking the rebels at Newcastle upon Tyne and capturing a rebel stronghold at Morpeth. He besieged the rebels at Bamburgh Castle and built a castle facing the existing one.

During January 1097 in Salisbury, William Eu was formally accused of treason, challenged to trial by battle and was defeated by Geoffrey Baynard, former High Sheriff of Yorkshire. It was finally decided that William was to be blinded and mutilated.

William died sometime later and was buried at Hastings.

He is the son and heir of Robert d'Eu († 1089/1093) . Between 1091 and 1093, he succeeded him as Count of Eu and Lord of Hastings .

In 1088, William takes part in the rebellion against the King of England William Rufus , to place the elder brother of one Courteheuse Robert , Duke of Normandy at the head of the kingdom . He leads including a campaign against Royal Lordship of Berkeley, Gloucestershire . After the failure of the rebellion, he is forgiven, like most of the rebels.

In 1091, when William of intervention attempt Rufus in Normandy , his father is one of the English king supports. Robert Eu dies soon after (in the period 1091-1093) and William endorses Robert Courteheuse , to which he pays homage to his county . William Rufus, who considers Eu and castle as his beachhead in Normandy, in case he wanted to invade, resolved to buy the loyalty of the new Count of Eu .

In 1095, takes place in England a great revolt against King William Rufus . The two leaders are William, Count of Eu and Robert de Mowbray , a rich and powerful Anglo-Norman baron , earl of Northumbria . The conspiracy must place Stephen of Aumale on the English throne. These include, in addition to William, his cousin and Seneschal Guillaume Andrieu, Robert de Mowbray , Roger de Lacy , Hugues de Montgomery , Earl of Shrewsbury and his brother Philip, and Eudes 's uncle by marriage of the king . King raises an army to besiege the castle, which is located at the mouth of the Tyne .

After the failure of the rebellion, William II, Count of Eu denies any part in the conspiracy and to justify it duels against Geoffrey Baynard, former sheriff of Yorkshire .

He loses the judicial duel and is neutered and has his eyes gouged out. He did not survive his mutilation . This is Hugh of Avranches , Earl of Chester, his wife's brother Hélisende, which requires it to be enucleated and castrated because he mistreats .

It seems to have survived his injuries . Indeed, a "Hélisende, widow of Count of Eu" is mentioned in a story dated 1096 .              (not a pretty story, as Hugh is a great grandfather)

Worth Travers

Worth Matravers, a parish covering 2,700 acres, lies in the S. part of the Isle of Purbeck, 3 miles W. of Swanage. It stretches N.N.E. from the steep cliffs of St. Aldhelm's Head across an almost flat limestone tableland formed by the underlying Portland and Purbeck Beds, between 350 ft. and 450 ft. above O.D., drained by three deeply cut valleys in which small streams flow S. to the sea.

In the W. is Hill Bottom, and in the E. are Winspit and Seacombe Bottoms, both marked by impressive flights of strip lynchets of the former open fields of Worth Matravers. In the N. of the parish the limestone ends in a steep scarp below which is the wooded valley of the E. Corfe river on Wealden Beds around 150 ft. above O.D.

As elsewhere in Purbeck, the mediaeval settlement pattern is one of many small hamlets and farms, each with a more or less rectangular area of land, the boundaries of which are still marked by continuous lines of field walls and hedges. On the high limestone tableland are Renscombe Farm, Weston Farm, Worth Matravers and Eastington Farm. Domesday Book mentions holdings in Renscombe and numerous holdings in Worth, among which Weston and Eastington Farms are probably included.

In the Corfe Valley are Woodyhyde, Downshay and Quarr, all probably much earlier than their earliest documentary references. The lands belonging to the farms in the valley stretched up on to the limestone plateau and included some of the principal medieval sources of Purbeck stone and marble.

The local stone is generally used for walls and roofs giving the village a picturesque quality though none of the houses individually is of architectural importance. The outlying farmhouses representing the early settlements are mostly of the 17th century. The Parish Church and St. Aldhelm's Chapel are the principal monuments.


Five of the old Saxon hidage boundaries can still be traced, running in straight lines from the village street southwards to the cliffs. By the Thirteenth Century these strips of land, each of which had originally been allocated to a family, had developed into three manors, remains of which still exist. 

In the east the Manor of Langton Mautravers stretched westwards as far as the church. In the west, stretching far beyond the confines of the parish, lay the great Manor of Langton Wallis. 

Between these lay the tiny one-hide Manor of Durnford.

The Manor of Langton Mautravers is named after its mediaeval lords who had arrived with William of Normandy in 1066. They also owned Worth Matravers for a short time, but they lived at Woolcombe Matravers and later at Lytchett Matravers, further north in Dorset.

 Remains of this manor now belong to the Encombe Estate which purchased it in 1875. The huge western manor was also named after its mediaeval lords, the Le Walleys family, who came from Brittany in 1066. 

From the early Seventeenth Century this manor was owned by the Bankes family of Kingston Lacy until 1982, when it was bequeathed to the National Trust. Together with Corfe Castle, it now forms part of the Trust's Purbeck Estate. 

The lords of these two large manors were always absentees (the le Walleys family lived at Chickerell) so there were no manor houses in their Langton lands. 

However, the lords of the tiny Manor of Durnford, who were called De Derneford, 
resided in the village.  

There are now six farms in this parish, as well as several ‘small holdings’. Coome Farm and
Putlake Adventure Farm are part of the Encombe Estate. Wilkswood and Spyway Farms are
tenanted from the National Trust, which now owns the greater part of the parish. Other farms
include Knitson and Knaveswell.

Some of these farms retain their original Saxon names: Knitson is ‘the farm settlement of
Cnightwine’; Knaveswell is sited where a youth found a spring of pure water; Putlake
(originally Puck Lakes) is situated on a mischievous stream prone to flooding the area (Puck
being a sprite and ‘lake’ an early Saxon word for ‘water’); Wilkswood was reclaimed from a
section of the royal hunting warren managed by a Saxon called Wilic; Coombe is situated in a
short valley in the side of a hill; Acton was and still is a sheep-farm (‘taca-ton’). 

From this information it could be assumed that the people who lived here were styled de Derenford and perhaps had links to the early Saxons.

Worth Matravers  is also set in beautiful countryside with the added advantage of long views down to the sea in all its changing moods. It is also one of the oldest villages, with evidence of continuous occupation for around 6000 years. Once a village for quarrymen, fishermen and farm-workers     

Clive Hannay in Purbeck’s deservedly renowned village  The Dorset Magazine

Buckland Newton is a village in Dorset located between Sherborne to the north and the Countytown of Dorchester to the south.  According to the publication 'Dorset Place Names - their origins andmeanings' (A D Mills, published by Countryside Books) the name derives "from Old English bocland 'charter land' i.e. 'land in which certain rights and privileges were granted by charter'.

The relatively recent addition of Newton is from Sturminster Newton, because at one time the Hundreds of Sturminster and Buckland were combined".

The village of Buckland Newton is situated in beautiful Dorset countryside on the edge of the Dorset Downs and within the Dorset Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

(This area also features in the ancestors of one of our maternal lineages)


The area around Tavistock (formerly Tavistoke), where the River Tavy runs wide and shallow allowing it to be easily crossed, and near the secure high ground of Dartmoor, was inhabited long before the historical record.

The surrounding area is littered with archaeological remains from the Bronze and Iron Ages and it is believed a hamlet existed on the site of the present town long before the town's official history began, with the founding of the Abbey.

The abbey of Saint Mary and Saint Rumon was founded in 961 by Ordgar, Earl of Devon. After destruction by Danish raiders in 997 it was restored, and among its famous abbots was Aldred, who crowned Harold II and William I, and died Archbishop of York.

In 1105 a Royal Charter was granted by Henry I to the monks of Tavistock to run a weekly "Pannier Market" (so called after the baskets used to carry goods) on a Friday, which still takes place today.

In 1116 a three-day fair was also granted to mark the feast of Saint Rumon, another tradition that is still maintained in the shape of the annual "Goosey" fair on the second Wednesday in October.

By 1185 Tavistock had achieved borough status and in 1295 became a parliamentary borough, sending two members to parliament. The abbey church was rebuilt in 1285. In 1305, with the growing importance of the area as one of Europe's richest sources of tin, Tavistock was one of the four stannary towns appointed by charter of Edward I, where tin was stamped and weighed and monthly courts were held for the regulation of mining affairs.

Parish church

The church of Saint Eustachius (Eustace) (named after the Roman centurion who became a Christian) was dedicated by Bishop Stapledon in 1318 though there are very few remains of that building today.

It was rebuilt and enlarged into its current form between 1350 and 1450, at which time the Clothworkers' Aisle (an outer south aisle) was included, an indication of the growing importance of the textile industry to the local economy—the trade was protected by a 1467 statute. The whole is in the Perpendicular style and consists of a nave and chancel; both with two aisles, tower and outer south aisle.

It possesses a lofty tower supported on four open arches, one of which was reputedly added to accommodate the nineteenth century "tinners" or tin miners. Within are monuments to the Glanville and Bourchier families, besides some fine stained glass, one window being the work of William Morris and another of Charles Eamer Kempe.

It also has a roof boss featuring one of the so-called 'Tinners' Hares', a trio of rabbits/hares joined at and sharing three ears between them. The font is octagonal and dates from the fifteenth century.

Shaftesbury is a town on the Dorset border, 28 miles north-east from Dorchester. Roman coins have been found during excavations and the town was mentioned in the Domesday Book. An abbey was established in the 6th century and it was a place of pilgrimage at one time. The town is on a hill for which there is a steep ascent.

The parish of St Peter covers the main part of the town, St James covers the lower part of the town and was described as mainly small tenements in the 19th century. Holy Trinity is to the south and west. Under the Local Government Act of 1894 large parts of the  three parishes became the borough of Shaftesbury. 

Marnhull /ˈmɑrnəl/ is a village and civil parish in the county of Dorset in southern England. It lies in the Blackmore Vale in the North Dorset administrative district, 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the small town of Sturminster Newton. The resort towns of Bournemouth and Weymouth are approximately 30 miles (48 km) to the south. Marnhull is sited on a low ridge of Corallian limestone above the valley of the River Stour, which forms the northern and western boundaries of the parish.

Saxon charters show that Marnhull existed as a village in the 10th century,[4] although the village's site has seen human occupation as early as the Iron Age,[4] and a Roman settlement was established at Ashley Wood in the east of the parish.

Maker Vicarage is situate in the hundred of East, and hath upon the east Plymouth Harbour 
and St Nicholas Island, north Millbrook and East Anthony, south and west Rame and
St. John's. 
In the Domesday Book 20 William I. 1087, this district was taxed in Cornwall 
by the name of Macrettone. 
In the Inquisition into the value of Cornish Benefices 20 Edward I. 1294, made by the
Bishops of Lincoln and Winchester, Ecclesia de Macre, in decanatu de Estwellshire 100s. 
Vicar ejusdem 53s. 4rf. In Wolsey's Inquisition 1521, it is rated by the name of 
Meker 231. Us.

The patronage in Edgcumbe, the incumbent Mitchell, and the parish rated to the
4s. per pound Land Tax 1696, 143/. 11s. 
Part of Maker, and those lands called Mount Edgcumbe, were formerly the lands of Durneford of Devon, of which family, Stephen Durneford was Sheriff of Devon 6 Henry V. 1413, and of
Cornwall 7 Henry V. 1419, whose great granddaughter, (the issue male failing) the sole heirof the family, was married to Sir Piers Edgcumbe, Knight, Lord of Cotehele in Cornwall by
long inheritance, and of East Stonehouse in Devon, whose ancestor Peter Edgcumbe, 
Esq. 12 Henry VI. 1443, was certified by the Commissioners to be one of the gentry of the 
county of Devon. 

He was the father of Richard Edgcumbe, afterwards knighted, Sheriff of Devon 2d Henry VII. 1487, when John Tremayne was Sheriff of Cornwall ; the which Mr. Edgcumbe was a gentleman 
that hazarded his life and fortune in espousing the Earl of Richmond's case and title to 
the Crown in opposition to King Richard III. He then lived at Cotehele aforesaid in
Calstock parish ; and be discovered to be one of that faction or party, he was forced 
to abscond and retire into the thick woods that then were and still are about Cotehele ;
nevertheless, King Richard, having notice of his absconding, ordered his officers to 
make diligent search for him, and in all probability had taken him, had he not rescued
himself from their pursuit by an unparalleled accident, as Mr. Carew in his Survey of 
Cornwall, p. 114, (page 270, Lord Dunstanville's edition), informs us, viz. " at such 
tymes as those searchers were in his woods, and himself hid in a secret hole of the sea
cliffe, the tide being full up, he put a small stone into his wearinge cap and threw it 
into the sea, which swimming in the water the winds and waves tossed it to and fro that it soone came to those seekers' sight and observation.  
Whereupon they concluded he had leapt into the sea and drowned himself for fear of their 
discovery and being taken by them, and so left over further quest after him, which gave himopportunity soon after in a small ship to waft over the British Channel to Britany to
the Earl of Richmond, with whom afterwards he returned again into England, and was engaged with him in the battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire, where King Richard's army 
was overthrown and himself slain upon the spot.

When soon after the said Mr. Edgcumbe was by King Henry VII. knighted and made one of his
Privy ' Council ; and as a further reward of his good services, rewarded with the 
whole estate and lands of inheritance of Sir Henry Trenoweth, of Bodrigan, Knight, 
of a very great value, then forfeited by attainder of treason on the part of King 
Richard III. against King Henry VII. ; as also with the Castle and Lordship of Totnes in
Devon, with much other lands of John Lord Zouch, then also for the same fact forfeited by
attainder of treason against King Henry VII. 
This Sir Richard Edgcumbe, Knight, married Tremayne, and had issue Peers, afterwards knighted, that married Durneford's heir aforesaid, and had issue Richard, afterwards knighted,
that married Tregian, of Walveden, who had issue Peter, that married Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Andrew Luttrell, Knight, in the latter end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, who gave for hisarms, Gules, on a bend Ermine between two cottices Or, three boar's heads couped. 

Sir Richard Edgcumbe, Knight, Privy Councillor to King Henry VII. as Mr. Carew saith,
in the place where he hid himself in Cotehele woods aforesaid, built a chapel to the honourof Almighty God, in testimony of his thankful remembrance of God's preserving him from 
the hands of his enemies then at his heels. 
Him or his father I take also to be that Edgecumbe which founded at West Con worthy,
on the west side of the river Dart, between the towns of Totnes and Dartmouth in Devon,
a priory of Benedictine monks, whose revenues out of Zouch's lands was valued 
26 Henry VIII. when dissolved, 631. 2s. lOd. as the Monasticon Anglicanum informs us. 
At which time it was purchased of the Crown by William Harris, Esq. father of 
Sir Thomas Harris, of Hayne, Knight and Sergeant-at-law, tempore Elizabeth, who made 
it the place of his residence ; but in the third descent it came to be divided between the daughters and heirs of Sir Edward Harris, Knight, the house being now comparatively 

Now as from the premises it appears those gentlemen's estates were greatly augmented by thebounty of King Henry VII. so after a grateful manner they have converted great sums of
money towards the service of their prince and country; and to this purpose I find 
it recorded, that as Sir Richard Edgcumbe the first was Sheriff of Devon 2d Henry VII. 
so his son Sir Peers or Peter Edgcumbe aforesaid, was Sheriff of Devon 10th Henry VII. alsothe 13th ; also the 9th of Henry VIII. also the 20th ; also Sir Richard Edgcumbe that
married Tregian, and built the present house here called Mount Edgcumbe, 36th Henry VIII, 
also the 1st of Queen Mary ; also Peter Edgcumbe his son and of Cornwall Sir Peter Edgcumbe14th and 15th of Henry VII. also 21st; also 8th of Henry VIII. also 26th. Sir 
Richard Edgcumbe 2d and 3d of Queen Mary, also Peter Edgcumbe llth of Elizabeth, 
Richard Edgcumbe 8th James I.

In all or total sixteen times Sheriff of Cornwall and Devon, from the. year 1487 to the
year 1640, which is but 150 years ; the like instance of Sheriffs not tobe given of any
other family in England except the Arundels, of Lanhearne, Trerice, and Tolverne, who have been twenty times. 
Richard Edgcumbe, Esq. Sheriff of Cornwall 8th of King James I. had issue Richard Edgcumbe,Esq. created one of the Knights of the Bath, at the Coronation of King Charles II.
He married the Lady Anne Montagu, daughter of the Right Honourable Edward Earl of Sandwich,
and had issue Richard Edgcumbe, Esq. 

(another family link)

Half of Millbrook in this parish and of Mount Edgcumbe lands, are part of the county of 
Devon, though severed from it by the Tamerworth sea or harbour ever since King Athelstan,
anno Dom. 930, separated Devon from Cornwall, and made them several jurisdictions, which 
before were but one county or regniculum ; and the reason in all probability why several
parcels of land, not only here in this place, but in divers others on the east and west 
side of the Tamer river, the Devonshire side lands are annexed to Cornwall, and the 
Cornwall side lands to Devon, was in all probability by reason the owners of those lands 
were possessed of lands both in Devonshire and Cornwall ; and it could not in any sense 
consist with justice that the Cornish men should lose their lands in Devon, or the 
Devonshire men lose their lands in Cornwall, because those counties were divided by the 
river Tamar, and both people under the dominion of one king, 

The object however which attracts the attention of strangers from all others in this 
paris is the place formerly called Vaultershome, and afterwards West Stonehouse, but which 
Mr. Edgcumbe, who acquired it by a marriage with the heiress of the family of Durneford, 
its former possessors, chose to name Mount Edgcumbe, a proceeding now sanctioned by time,
as are those of the change from Port Prior to Port Eliot, and some others.

It would be useless to describe this most beautiful and superb place, considered by many asaltogether the finest gentleman's seat in the West of England. Nor can it be the least 
necessary to say any thing here of the distinguished family after whom it is called ;
who have possessed an hereditary seat in Parliament since the year 1741, and for
two descents have been Lord Lieutenants of Cornwall. 
By a strange absurdity this south-eastern extremity has been, notwithstanding that the
whole river is attached to Cornwall, artificially considered as a part of Devonshire ; 
but this and other similar anomalies are in some degree corrected by modern acts of the 
legislature, the authority of magistrates for any county having been extended over 
these insulated portions of another, and the right of voting Sir John Arundell, knight,
very kind friend,) after his lady's decease, took for his second wife daughter of 
John Arundell, of Trerice, esq. the relict of John Trevanion, of Caryhayes, esq. by whom hehad no issue. 
Whereupon the said Sir John Arundell, having by fine, proclamation, and recovery, docked
his estate tail to bar the remainder, settled the same upon his grandson, Richard 
Billinge, Esq. by his last will and testament ; on condition that he and his posterity for ever should assume the surname of Arundell, in conjunction with that of Billinge, or 
separate, anno Dom. 1701. 

Some interesting facts about the lands of Stephen Derneford.

The first gentleman of this family that appears on public record to have served the state
or the country, was Sir John Arundell, knight, Sheriff of Cornwall, 6 Henry V. 1418, when
Stephen Durneford was Sheriff of Devon, Henry Arundell, esq. his son, was Sheriff of 
Cornwall 16 Henry VI. 1443, (when one Thomas Arundell was Sheriff of Devon,) 
Renfry Arundell, esq. was Sheriff of Cornwall 3 and 4 Edward IV. 1483. 

To the south of Treganyan is the church town and rectory house, and near to them is 
Tregothnan, which signifies the old town in the valley, a name suitable to the situation ofthe old house, although not of the new one. This place was anciently the seat of a family
of the same name, till Johanna, the daughter and heir of John Tregothnan, by her marriage
in the 8th year of Edward theThird, 


The manuscript relating to this parish is lost, 
Rame is in the hundred of East, and is surrounded to the west, south, and part of
the east by the sea, to the rest of the east by Maker, and to the north by St. John's. 
This church is a rectory, valued in the King's Book \2. 7s. 4e?. ob. ; the patronage in theHonorable Richard Edgcumbe, esq. ; the incumbent Mr. Thomas Wolridge. 
In anno 1291, 20 Edward I. (Tax. Benef.) this church was valued at xlvis. vine?, having 
never been appropriated. 
In the extent of Cornish acres, 12 Edward L this is valued in twenty (Carew, fol. 48 b.) 
In 3 Hen. IV. Johanna de Rame held one great fee of Seviock, meaning (I suppose) that she
held this place as a great knight's fee of the said manor. 
I take this Johanna de Rame to be the person that was married to Stephen Durnford, esq. whowas Sheriff of Cornwall, 7 Henry V. whose only daughter and heir Jane brought this 
lordship, with a large inheritance, to her husband Sir Pierce Edgcombe of Cuttvyle, and in their posterity it still remaineth, the honorable Richard Edgcombe, esq. being the present lord of this manor, and in right thereof, patron of this parish, as was said before. 
The arms of Rame were, in allusion to the name, Azure,a scalp of a ram's head Argent,
armed ; and Durnford's Azure, an eagle displayed Or. 

Rame of Rame — extinct about the reign of Henry V.: the heiress married Dernford. The representative of these two families is the Earl of Mount-Edgcumb.
Arms of Rame: — Sable a ram's head caboshed Arg., armed Or.
But the barton of Rame hath since often changed its liame church is situated in a very 
peculiar manner, far out on the point of land, and immediately near a rocky 
cliff. It has several monuments to former rectors and others, but none of general interest. 
"Trematon Castle, in the very same county of Cornwall, which may with good reason be
concluded to have been built by Robert Earl of Moreton, is a true Norman structure. And 
there cannot be a greater contrast than there is between it and Launceston. Like Tunbridge Castle, it is placed, not on a high natural rock, but on an artificial mount, and is 
no less than sixty feet in diameter on the inside." 
See the views of it in Borlase's Antiquities, Second Edition, p. 354, Plate 31, and in
Grose's Supplement to his Antiquities. 
There does not appear to be any real military history connected with this fortress.
It proved an insecure place of refuge during the insurrection of 1549, raised by
Humphry Arundell and others in favour of the old religion. 
The castle was for some time occupied as subfeudatories by the Barons de Valletorta, 
so called, it is said, from the narrow winding valley, which descends from the castle wall 
towards the south. 
Roger de Valletort, Reginald, Ralph, Reginald, and Roger, appear to have possessed or 
occupied Trematon from about the year 1180, through nearly the whole of the next century. 
This fine ruin has within a few years received a most material injury, at least in the
opinion of all antiquaries, by the building of a modern house in its Basse Court. 

This ponders a question, did some of the other Derneford families living in the area move?

Are they all related, or simply residents of the same village or area?

There are numerous records for different Durnford's in the South West.

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