THE DURNFORDS IN ENGLAND
Members of the Dernford/Durnford family have been traced to South West and Cornwall areas, and to the Wiltshire area.
the Saxons still tried to put up a fight for lands in Cornwall.
William appointed earls who, in Wales and in all parts of the kingdom, undertook to guard the threatened frontiers and maintain internal security in return for land.
In 1069, the Danes, in alliance with Prince Edgar the Aetheling (Ethelred's great-grandson) and other English nobles, invaded the north and took York.
Taking personal charge, and pausing only to deal with the rising at Stafford, William drove the Danes back to their ships on the Humber.
William imprisoned Edgar
In a harsh campaign lasting into 1070, William systematically devastated Mercia and Northumbria to deprive the Danes of their supplies and prevent recovery of English resistance. Churches and monasteries were burnt, and agricultural land was laid to waste, creating a famine for the unarmed and mostly peasant population which lasted at least nine years.
|The language of the day|
The Domesday survey was prompted by ignorance of the state of land holding in England, as well as the result of the costs of defence measures in England and renewed war in France.
The scope, speed, efficiency and completion of this survey was remarkable for its time and resulted in the two-volume Domesday Book of 1086, which still exists today
William needed to ensure the direct loyalty of his feudal tenants. The 1086 Oath of Salisbury was a gathering of William's 170 tenants-in-chief and other important landowners who took an oath of fealty to William.
This story from the Cornwall Heritage Trust presents some great information
The Normans arrive...
The Domesday Book recorded that the very best of the Cornish estates, 227 (of 350) and valued at £424, were in the hands of Robert, Count of Mortain. The remainder were held by a mixture of Anglo-Saxons, Bretons and Flemings.
Mappa Mundi, drawn around 1290AD
Truro was given its charter in 1173 by Reginald de Dunstanville, 1st Earl of Cornwall 'to my free burgesses of Truro'. It was addressed ' to the barons of Cornwall, and all men both Cornish and English'. The language shows the strange relationship between Cornwall and the English crown, very much an independent nation under the 'protection' of the English state.
best-preserved Norman motte-and-bailey castles in Cornwall.
It dominates the Fowey Valley near Lostwithiel.
A contemporary picture of the Black Death.
At the time its cause was a complete mystery,
this picture seeming to blame it on Halley’s Comet.
The Black Death (or “Great Pestilence”) reached Cornwall 1349, almost certainly by ship, peaking in 1350/1 and breaking-out again in 1352. Estimates suggest that towns such as Truro and Bodmin lost half of their populations.
The Dukes and Duchy of Cornwall
Throughout the middle ages noblemen were created Earl of Cornwall, but each time their lines soon died out and the title lapsed for a few years. Here are some of the notable holders of the post at this time:
- 1135-41 Count Allan of Brittany (appointed by King Stephen)
- 1141-54 Reginald de Dunstanville (appointed by King Stephen)
- 1154 Richard, uncle of Henry II (appointed by Henry II)
- 1225 Richard, younger brother of Henry III (appointed by Henry III) Richard had already been granted the rights to the Cornish tin-workings
- 1272-1300 Edmund who modernized Restormel Castle and was the last Earl of Cornwall to live in the county.
- 1300-1307 Kings Edward I and Edward II kept the title for themselves
- 1307-12 Piers Gaveston, court favourite, (given the title by Edward II) until his execution in 1312.
- 1336-7, Edward, the “Black Prince” (appointed by Edward III) and the first “Duke of Cornwall.” By this time the Duke’s lands in Cornwall consisted of 17 manors and the boroughs of Camelford, Grampound, Helston, Launceston, Liskeard, Lostwithiel, Tintagel, Trematon and Saltash. Other benefits included the profits from the county courts, control of wrecks and the right to collect a duty of £2 on each 1,000lbs. of tin produced in Cornwall.
Cornwall was still a distinct and to a great extent separate part of the kingdom. The Cornish were expected to play their part in the defence of the kingdom. In 1415, for example, Cornish archers fought under a banner depicting two Cornish wrestlers at the Battle of Agincourt.
Most of the parish churches in Cornwall date from this time. In the medieval towns which developed during the middle ages there was usually just a “chapel of ease”, with the rights of burial and other parish functions remaining at the ancient parish church often some distance away. An example of this is Penzance, whose parish church was at Madron, some two miles to the north of the town.
Dupath Holy Well
Glasney College at Penryn
Medieval Cornwall supported an internationally important tin industry. Tin streaming and shallow shaft mining provided employment and created wealth far beyond the norm for such a remote and poor agricultural area. Shallow mining effectively mapped the major areas where tin occurred and many valleys in Cornwall were streamed for tin.
The Stannary Palace (or “Duchy Palace” in Lostwithiel), dating from the end of the C13th,
was built to house a Court dealing with the Cornish tin industry.