Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich, KG (27 July 1625 – 28 May 1672) was an English Infantry officer who later became a naval officer and a politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1645 and 1660.
On 7 November 1642, Montagu married Jemima Crew, daughter of John Crew, 1st Baron Crew, whom Pepys in his Diary refers to with great affection as "My Lady", and by whom he had ten children:
- Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Sandwich (1648–1688)
- Hon. Sidney Montagu (1650–1727)
- Hon. Oliver Montagu (c.1655–1689)
- Hon. John Montagu (c.1655 – 25 February 1729), Dean of Durham
- Hon. Charles Montagu (c.1658–1721), married first Elizabeth Forester, second Sarah Rogers and had issue by both
- Lady Jemima Montagu, married Sir Philip Carteret (d. 1672)
- Lady Anne Montagu (d. 14 March 1729), married first Sir Richard Edgecumbe, second Christopher Montagu, elder brother of the Earl of Halifax
- Lady Catherine Montagu (20 August 1661–15 January 1757), married first Nicholas Bacon, second Rev. Balthazar Gardeman (1682-1740)
- Hon. James Montagu (b. 15 July 1664)
- Lady Paulina Montagu
Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Sandwich (3 January 1647/48 – 29 November 1688) was born in Hinchinbrooke, Huntingdonshire, England to Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich and Jemima Crew. He was styled Viscount Hinchingbrooke from 1660 until his accession in 1672.
He married Lady Anne Boyle, daughter of Richard Boyle, 2nd Earl of Cork and Elizabeth Clifford, 2nd Baroness Clifford. They had three children Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich, Richard Montagu and Elizabeth Montagu.
In 1681, he was to be appointed Lord Lieutenant of Huntingdonshire upon his return from abroad, but he never took up the office, which was exercised successively by Robert Bruce, 1st Earl of Ailesbury and Thomas Bruce, 2nd Earl of Ailesbury. The 1st Earl also exercised for him, in the same fashion, the office of Lord Lieutenant of Cambridgeshire in 1685, but the appointment was rescinded after Ailesbury's death the same year.
About Rev. John Montagu, Dean of Durham
He entered Trinity College, Cambridge as a fellow-commoner on 12 April 1672, proceeded MA. jure natalium, 1673 and was elected a fellow in 1674. In 1680, he was made master of Sherburn Hospital by his relative Bishop Crewe, and in 1683 a prebend of Durham. On 12 May 1683 King James also made him Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 27 September 1686, he was awarded a Doctorate by Royal mandate. He was promoted to Vice-chancellor in 1687.
In either 1699 or 1700, he resigned the mastership of Trinity and became Dean of Durham, which he kept until his death in 1728. Montagu was admitted a member of the Gentlemen's Society at Spalding on 22 August 1723. He died unmarried, at his house in Bedford Row, Holborn, London, on 23 February 1728, aged 73, and was interred at Barnwell, Northamptonshire, the burying-place of his family (Nichols, Lit. Anecd. vi. 99).
Trinity College is said to have declined in numbers or reputation during Montagu's mastership, on account of the relaxation of discipline which his easy temper encouraged. He was a liberal benefactor to the college, subscribing 228l. towards the cost of the new library, and allowing 170l., due to him as master when he resigned, to be expended in purchasing furniture for the master's lodge. This sum had been claimed by his successor, Dr. Richard Bentley, and the above compromise was not effected till 1702, when the thanks of the society were given to Montagu, and his name inscribed in the register of benefactors by the master. In 1720, when Bentley was projecting an edition of the New Testament, Montagu lent him some manuscripts from the Chapter Library at Durham
. Lady Anne Montagu (d. 14 Mar 1729), mar. (1) Sir Richard Edgcumbe KB, of Mount Edgcumbe, co. Cornwall (d. 1688), and (2) her cousin Christopher Montagu, and had issue by her first husband
Lady Anne Montagu was the daughter of Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester and Lady Anne Rich. She married Robert Rich, 5th Earl of Warwick, son of Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland and Isabel Cope.3,1 She died circa July 1689.4 She was buried on 9 July 1689.4
Her married name became Rich.
The Earls of Sandwich as descended from Charles Montgau's father.
Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich (10 April 1670 – 20 October 1729) was born in Burlington House, London, England to Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Sandwich and Lady Ann Boyle. He was styled Viscount Hinchingbrooke from 1672 until his accession to the earldom in 1688.
On 8 July 1689 he married Elizabeth Wilmot, daughter of John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester and Elizabeth Malet. They had two children, Elizabeth died an infant, and Edward Richard Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke (7 July 1692 – 3 October 1722).
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, PC, FRS (13 November 1718 – 30 April 1792) was a British statesman who succeeded his grandfather, Edward Montagu, 3rd Earl of Sandwich, as the Earl of Sandwich in 1729, at the age of ten. During his life he held various military and political offices, including Postmaster General, First Lord of the Admiralty and Secretary of State for the Northern Department, but is perhaps best known for the claim that he was the eponymous inventor of the sandwich.
John Montagu was born in 1718, the son of Edward Montagu, Viscount Hinchingbrooke. At the age of four his father died, leaving him as his heir.
His mother soon remarried and he had little further contact with her. He succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Sandwich in 1729. Educated at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge, Montagu spent some time in travelling, initially going on the Grand Tour round Continental Europe before visiting the more unusual destinations of Greece, Turkey and Egypt which were then part of the Ottoman Empire.
This led him to later found a number of Orientalist societies. On his return to England in 1739 he took his seat in the House of Lords as a follower of the Duke of Bedford, one of the wealthiest and most powerful politicians of the era. He became a Patriot Whig and one of the sharpest critics of the Walpole government, attacking the government's strategy in the War of the Austrian Succession.
Like many Patriot Whigs, Lord Sandwich was opposed to Britain's support of Hanover and strongly opposed the deployment of British troops on the European Continent to protect it, instead arguing that Britain should make greater use of its naval power. He gained attention for his speeches in parliament which earned him a reputation for clearly setting out his argument, even if they lacked natural eloquence.
In 1744, Bedford was invited to join the government, now headed by Henry Pelham, taking the post of First Lord of the Admiralty. Sandwich joined him as one of the Commissioners of the Admiralty, in effect serving as deputy under Bedford. The experienced Admiral Lord Anson also joined the Admiralty board and was an influential figure.
As Bedford spent much of his time at his country estate, much of the day-to-day running of the Admiralty fell to Sandwich and Anson. Anson had control of the training and discipline of the navy, while Sandwich focused on the administration. Following a proposal by Admiral Edward Vernon, the concept of a Western Squadron was pioneered, which was to prove very successful.This marked a radical shift in British naval strategy, and was to lead to British success at the Battles of Cape Finisterre.
The following year Sandwich took a commission as a Colonel in the Army as part of the response to the Jacobite Rebellion and the prospect of a French invasion. In order to boost the relatively small British army, a number of units were raised by prominent figures, and Sandwich served in the regiment formed by Bedford. While serving in the Midlands he fell seriously ill with fever, and nearly died. After his recovery, he returned to his duties at the admiralty. He remained an army officer for the rest of his life, remaining on the half-pay list, and eventually rising to the rank of General even though he took no further active part in the army.
Congress of Breda
It is possible that during his time at Breda, he played a role in the 1747 Dutch Revolution which brought The Prince of Orange wider powers, something supported by Britain as they hoped the Prince would improve the Dutch Republic's military performance in the ongoing war in the Low Countries. However, there is no firm evidence of this.
* Charles Montagu died at Breda 1721!
First Lord of the Admiralty (first and second spells)
In 1763 he returned to the Admiralty in the government of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, and encouraged a major rebuilding programme for the Royal Navy. Bute was a Tory who wished to bring the war to an end, which he did with the Treaty of Paris. (He was also a cousin)
It was during this time that Sandwich first met Martha Ray who became his long-standing mistress. He was soon dismissed from the office, but was offered the influential position of Ambassador to Madrid.
Northern SecretaryIn August 1763 Sandwich became Secretary of State for the Northern Department, in the government of George Grenville who had replaced Bute.
While filling this office he took a leading part in the successful prosecution of the radical M.P. John Wilkes for obscene libel. Although he had been allegedly associated with Wilkes in the notorious Hellfire Club (also known as the Monks of Medmenham), recent scholarship has suggested that the two had a more distant but cordial relationship than the friendship which was popularly portrayed at the time.
John Gay's The Beggar's Opera was played in Covent Garden shortly thereafter, and the similarity of Sandwich's conduct to that of Jemmy Twitcher, betrayer of Macheath in that play, permanently attached to him that appellation. Wilkes was eventually expelled from the House of Commons.
He held the post of Northern Secretary until July 1765. His departure from the post coincided with the end of George Grenville's term as Prime Minister. He hoped to return to office swiftly, provided a united opposition could be formed.
First Lord of the Admiralty (third spell)
His appointment to the post followed the Falklands Crisis which had nearly seen Britain go to war with Spain over the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean after the Capture of Port Egmont by Spanish forces. War had only been averted when Louis XVI of France refused to back the Spanish over the dispute.
Both France and Spain resented what they considered British hegemony following the Seven Years' War, and desired to overturn the imbalance of power; war was widely expected to break out between the nations in the near future.
Sandwich's administration of the Navy in the lead up to and during the American War of Independence was traditionally portrayed as being incompetent, with insufficient ships being ready for the outbreak of war with France in 1778.
When Britain and France went to war, Sandwich advocated a strategy of concentrating the British fleet in European waters to deter invasion in opposition to his colleague, Lord Germain, who pushed for more ships to be sent to North America.
The cabinet largely followed Sandwich's policy, retaining footholds on the American coast which could be used as naval bases, while retaining the bulk of the fleet at home. Sandwich's problems increased when Spain entered the war on France's side in 1779 giving the Bourbon fleets a numerical advantage over the Royal Navy.
During 1779 a combined Franco-Spanish fleet was able to sail into the English Channel to threaten the coast of Cornwall in the initial stage of a Franco-Spanish invasion of Britain. Sandwich was criticised for the failure of the smaller British Channel Fleet to prevent this, although the invasion never materialised. After 1778, the primary objective in the war was maintaining control over the sugar-rich West Indian archipelago.
Personal lifeFor several years Sandwich had as a mistress Fanny Murray, the subject of Wilkes' An Essay on Woman (1763), but he eventually married Dorothy Fane, daughter of the 1st Viscount Fane, by whom he had a son, John, Viscount Hinchingbrooke (1743 – 1814), who later succeeded as 5th Earl.
Sandwich's first personal tragedy was his wife's deteriorating health and eventual insanity. During his wife's decline, Sandwich started an affair with the talented opera singer Martha Ray. During their relationship, Ray bore him at least five and perhaps as many as nine children, including Basil Montagu (1770 – 1851), writer, jurist and philanthropist
Tragedy was to strike again in April 1779 when Ray was murdered in the foyer of the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden by a jealous suitor, James Hackman, Rector of Wiveton. Sandwich never recovered from his grief. The events surrounding Ray's murder were depicted in a popular novel Love and Madness (1780) by Herbert Croft.
This retort is often misattributed to John Wilkes.
Sandwich retired from public duty in 1782, and lived another ten years in retirement at the family seat, Hinchingbrooke House, Huntingdonshire, dying on 30 April 1792.
LegacySandwich retired in 1782. Despite the number of important posts that he held during his career, Sandwich's incompetence and corruption inspired the suggestion that his epitaph should read: "Seldom has any man held so many offices and accomplished so little."
Recently, some historians have begun to suggest that Lord Sandwich was not perhaps as incompetent as suggested, but that previous historians have placed too much emphasis on sources from his political enemies.
The sandwichThe modern sandwich is named after Lord Sandwich, but the exact circumstances of its invention and original use are still the subject of debate. A rumour in a contemporary travel book called Tour to London by Pierre Jean Grosley formed the popular myth that bread and meat sustained Lord Sandwich at the gambling table.
A very conversant gambler, Lord Sandwich did not take the time to have a meal during his long hours playing at the card table. Consequently, he would ask his servants to bring him slices of meat between two slices of bread; a habit well known among his gambling friends. Because John Montagu was the Earl of Sandwich others began to order "the same as Sandwich!" - the ‘sandwich’ was born.
The sober alternative is provided by Sandwich's biographer, N. A. M. Rodger, who suggests Sandwich's commitments to the navy, to politics and the arts mean the first sandwich was more likely to have been consumed at his work desk. From 14 March 1741 Sandwich had a Grisons Republic born brother-in-law, Jerome de Salis. The Grisons, or Graubunden, is well known for a sliced dried meat, Bündnerfleisch, while its then adjoining subject territory the Valtelline, where De Salis grew up, is known for Bresaola; so the refinement of Salis' native habits to suit card playing in St. James', Westminster could have been a small step for the inventive peer.[original research?]
Islands named after Sandwich by Capt James Cook
In honour of Sandwich, Captain Cook named the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) after him, as well as Montague Island off the south east coast of Australia, the South Sandwich Islands in the Southern Atlantic Ocean and Montague Island in the Gulf of Alaska.
Montagu Island is the largest of the South Sandwich Islands, located in the Weddell Sea off the coast of Antarctica.
It is a part of the British Overseas Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and has the only active volcano under the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom. It is located 60 km northeast from Bristol Island and 62 km south from Saunders Island.
The island was first sighted by James Cook in 1775, and named after John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich and the First Lord of the British Admiralty at the time of its discovery.
The first recorded landing was made by the British-Norwegian arctic explorer Carl Anton Larsen in 1908.
Montague Island is a continental island contained within the Montague Island Nature Reserve, a protected nature reserve that is located offshore from the South Coast region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The nearest town located onshore from the 81-hectare (200-acre) reserve and island is , situated approximately 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) to the northwest.
Montague Island is the largest island off the New South Wales east coast other than Lord Howe Island. It has been classified by the National Trust as a Landscape Conservation Area for its scenic, scientific and historical values. The Montague Island Light buildings are entered on the Register of the National Estate because of the architectural quality of the tower and residences.
The island was first sighted by Europeans in 1770 by James Cook and named Cape Dromedary, then identified as an island and named by the master of the Second Fleet convict transport HMS Surprize after George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax.
Montague Island is a popular tourist destination, known for its lighthouse, wildlife, most especially Little penguins (Eudyptula minor), and recreational activities; managed by the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service (NPWS).
Public access to the island is restricted to guided tours conducted by the NPWS in association with private operators.